Table of Contents




Visceral Region

Strucutre

ABDOMINALS

(1)Dickx N, Cagnie B, Parlevliet T, Lavens A, Danneels L. The effect of unilateral muscle pain on recruitment of the lumbar multifidus during automatic contraction. An experimental pain study. Manual Therapy. 2010;15:364-369.

Hides, J., Boughen, C., Stanton, W., Strudwick, M., & Wilson, S. A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transverse abdominis muscle during drawing in of the abdominal wall in elite Australian football league players with and without low back pain. JOSPT. Jan 2010; 40(1): 4-10.

(2) Vasseljen, O., Fladmark, A.M. Abdominal muscle contraction thickness and function after specific and general exercises: A randomized contolled trial in chronic low back pain patients. Man ther. 2010; 15:482-489. (Entered May 2011)
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VISCERA

(2) Bistritz L, Bain VG. Sphincter of oddi dysfunction: managing the patient with chronic biliary pain. World J of Gastroenterol, 2006 Jun, 12(24):3793-3802.

Boissonnault, W., Bass, B. “Pathological Origins of Trunk and Neck Pain: Part I—Pelvic and Abdominal Visceral Disorders.” JOSPT. 1990;12:192-207.\

Boissonnault, W., Bass, B. “Pathological Origins of Trunk and Neck Pain: Part II—Disorders of the Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems.” JOSPT. 1990;12:208-214.

Chronic bilary pain.” World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2006;12:3793-3802.

(1) Lamas K, Lindholm L, Stenlund H, Engstrom B, Jacobsson C. Effects of abdominal massage in management of constipation – a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(6):759-767. (abstract)

(2) Rabinovich RA, Vilaro J. Structural and functional changes of peripheral muscles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Cur Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16(2):123-133. (abstract)

(1)Robertson S. Neuroanatomical review of visceral pain. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 1999;7;131-140.

Robertson, S. Integrating the fascial system into contemporary concepts on movement XXXrolapsedXXXo. The Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. 2001; 9(1): 40-47.

(1)Stowell T, Cioffredi W, Greiner A, Cleland J. Abdominal differential diagnosis in a patient referred to a physical therapy clinic for low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:755-764.

William, David. “Massaging the Prostate.” Alternatives. 2005:157-160.
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Disorder

PREGNANCY

(2) Gutke A, Kjellby-Wendt G, Oberg B. The inter-rater reliability of a standardized classification system for pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Man Ther. 2010; 15: 13-18.

(2) Fritsky L. Physical therapy for infertility. Advance for Physical Therapists & PT Assistants. 2008:32-33.

Liaw LJ, Hsu MJ, Liao CF, Liu MF, Hsu AT. The Relationships Between Inter-recti Distance Measured by Ultrasound Imaging and Abdominal Muscle Function in Postpartum Women: A 6-month Follow-up Study. JOSPT. 2011;41(6):435-443. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Predicting persistent pregnancy-related low back pain. Spine. 2008;33:386-393.

(3) Postollec ML. PT for infertility: a new manual therapy technique could be an effective treatment for infertility. Advance for PTs and PTAs, March 2001

(1) Schiff Boissonnault J, Blaschak MJ. Incidence of diastasis recti abdominis during the childbearing year. Phys Ther. 1988;68(7):1082-6.

(2) Vishio J. Pregnancy and childbirth can bring an unwanted consequence – postpartum urinary incontinence. Advance for Directors in Rehab, Oct 1999.
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CONSTIPATION

(1)Harrington, K., Haskvitz, E. “Managing A Patient’s Constipation With Physical Therapy.” Phys Ther. 2006:1511-;861519.
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INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

(2) Packer N, Hoffman-Goetz L, Ward G. Does physical activity affect quality of life, disease symptoms and immune measures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease? A systematic review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. Mar 2010;50(1):1-18. (Entered March 2011)
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Lumbar Region

Structure

THORACOLUMBAR SPINE

(1)Keyser K. Clinical Pearl: Thoraco-Lumbar Junctional Mobilization. 2002; page3.

Lee LJ, Coppieters MW, Hodges PW. En block control of deep and superficial thoracic muscles in sagittal loading and unloading of the trunk. Gait Posture. Apr 2011;33(4):588-93. (Entered July 2011)
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LUMBAR SPINE

(1)Aspinall, Wendy. Clinical Implications of Iliopsoas Dysfunction. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 1993;1:41-46.

Bandy, WD, et al. Strapped versus unstrapped technique of the prone press-up for measurements of lumbar extension using a tape measure: difference in magnitude and reliability of measurements. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab. 2004;85:99-103.

(1) Barakatt ET, Romano PS, Riddle DL, Beckett, LA. The reliability of Maitland’s XXXrolapsedXXXon judgments in patients with low back pain. Journal of Manual and ManipulativeTtherapy. 2009; 17(3): 135-140. (entered april 2010).

(1)Biely S, Smith SS, Silfies SP. Clinical instability of the lumbar spine: diagnoses and intervention. Orthop Practice. 2006;18:11-18.

(2) Biley SA, Silfies SP. Analysis of movement coordination of the lumbar spine and pelvis between patients with mechanical LBP attributed to osseoligamentous damage and controls. JOSPT, 2006 Jan; 36(1). (abstract)

(1)Bigos SJ, Bowyer OR, Braen GR et al. Acute low back problems in adults. AHCPR guideline no. 14. J Manual Manipulative Ther. 1996;4:99-11.

Brown SH, McGill SM. Muscle force-stiffness characterisitics influence joint stability: a spine example. (abstract). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:338.

(2) Callaghan JP, Gunning JL, McGill SM. The relationship between lumbar spine load and muscle activity during extensor exercises. Phys Ther, 1998 Jan; 78(1)

Cibulka, Michael. Low Back Pain and Its Relation to the Hip and Foot. JOSPT. 1999;29:595-601.

(1) Cook C, Sizer P, Brismee JM, Showalter C, Huijbregts P. Does evidence support the existence of lumbar spine couple motion? A critical review of the literature. JOSPT. 2007;37(7):412.

Cook, C. (2007). Ch 3: Orthopedic Manual Therapy Clinical Examination. Orthopedic Manual Therapy: An Evidence – Based Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Ed. Inc.

Cook, C. (2007). Ch 11: Manual Therapy of the Lumbar Spine. Orthopedic Manual Therapy: An Evidence – Based Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Ed. Inc.

Davidson M, Keating JL. A comparison of five low back disability questionnaires: reliability and responsiveness. Phys Ther. 2002;82:8-24.

Degeneration of sacroiliac joint after instrumental lumbar or lumbosacral fusion: a prospective cohort study over five-year follow-up. Spine. 2008;33(11):1192-1198.

(2) Effects of age and comorbidities on complication rates and adverse outcomes after lumbar laminectomy in elderly patients. Spine. 2008;33(11):1250-1255.

Factors Associated With the Thickness of the Ligamentum Flavum: Is Ligamentum Flavum Thickening Due to Hypertrophy or Buckling? Spine. Jul 2011;36(16):E1093-E1097. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Ford JJ, Story I, McMeeken J. The test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the subjective complaints questionnaire for low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 283-291. (entered April 2010).
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Fowler, C. “The Portland Test.” The North Am Institue Of Orthop Manual Ther. 2004;9:2-3.

(2) Freburger, J.K., Carey, T.S., Holmes, G.M. Effectiveness of physical therapy for the management of chronic spine disorders: a propensity score approach. Phys Ther. 2006; 86 (3): 381 – 394.

(1)Gilbert K. Lumbar Spine Neutral Zone (Question/Answer). IAOM-US Quarterly Review. 2005;50 (2nd Quarter):12-13.

(1)Gombatto SP, Collins DR, Sahrmann SA, Ensberg JR, Lenke LG, VanDillen LR. Symmetry in timing of pelvic and hip motion during hip lateral rotation in individuals with low back pain. (abstract) Combined sections meeting.

(1)Hall, T.,Beyerlein,C., Hansson,U., Lim,HT., Odermark,M., Sainsbury,D. Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise: A Pilot Study to Investigate Effects of Range of Motion in Patients with Low Back Pain. J of Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2006;14:95-100.

(1)Huijbregts PA. Spinal motion palpation: a review of reliability studies. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2002;10:24-39.

Ingber, R. S.. Iliopsoas myofascial dysfunction: A treatable cause of LBP, Archives of Physical Med. 70:382-386, 1989.

(1) Intolo, P, Milosavljevic S, Baxter DG, Carman AB, Pal P, Munn J. The effect of age on lumbar range of motion: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2009;14:596-604.

(2) Johansson, F. Interexaminer reliability of lumbar segmental mobility tests. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 331 – 336.

(1)Kay AG. An extensive literature review of the lumbar multifidus: anatomy. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2000;8:102-114.

Klein RG, Eek BCJ. Orthopedic Medicine: a new approach to cervical and lumbar spine care. (Paper filed under injections.)

(1)Kong WZ, Goel VK, Gilbertson LG, Weinstein JN. Effects of muscle dysfunction on lumbar spine mechanics: a finite element study based on a two motion segments model. Spine. 1996;21:2197-2207.

Kouwenhoven, J., Vincken, K., Bartels, L. “Analysis of Pre-Existent Vertebral Rotation In The Normal Spine.” Spine. 2006;31:1467-1472.

(2) Kuo YL, Tully EA, Galea MP. Video based measurement of sagittal range of spinal motion in young an older adults. Man Ther. 2009;14:618-622.

Leerar PJ, Boissonnault W, Domholdt E, Roddey T. Documentation of red flags by physical therapists for patients with low back pain. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2007;15:42-49.

(1) Louw A. A scientific rational for treating lumbar facet joint dysfunction with physical therapy. ISPI Newsletter, 2008 July; 4(7).

(2) Medina-Mirapeix F, Escolar-Reina P, Gascon-Canovas JJ, Montilla-Herrador J, Jimeno-Serrano FJ, Collins S. Predictive factors of adherence to frequency and duration components in home execise programs for neck and low back pain: an observational study. BMC Musculotskeletal Disorders. 2009.10.

(1)Nouwen A, Van Akkerveeken PF, Versloot JM. Patterns of muscular activity during movement in patients with chronic low-back pain. Spine.1987;12:777-782.

(1)O’Brien, John. “Anterior Spinal Tenderness in Low-Back Pain Syndromes.” Spine. 1979;4:85-88.

(1) Olson MW. Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts. Man Ther. 2010;15:105-110.

(1)O’Sullivan PB, Twomey L, Allison GT. Dysfunction of the neuro-muscular system in the presence of low back pain :implications for physical therapy management. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 1997;5:20-26.

(1) Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP. The role of dynamic flexion in spine injury is altered by increasing dynamic load magnitude. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(2):148-154. (abstract)

Pereira LM, Marcucci FC, de Oliveira Menacho M, Garanhani MR, Lavado EL, Cardoso JR. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles in subjects with and without hemiparesis during therapeutic exercise. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. Apr 2011;21(2):327-332. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Radebold A, Cholewicki J, Panjabi MM, Patel TCh. Muscle response pattern to sudden trunk loading in healthy individuals and in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 2000;25:947-954.

(2) Robinson ME, Greene AF, O’Connor P, Graves JE, MacMillan M. Reliability of lumbar isometric torque in patients with chronic LBP. Phys Ther, 1992 March; 72(3)

(1)Rogers, E., Granata, K. “Disturbed Paraspinal Reflex Following Prolonged Flexion-Relaxation and Recovery.” Spine. Vol.31(7);2006: 839-845.

Santaguida, PL & McGill S. “The Psoas Major Muscle: A Three-Dimensional Geometric Study.” Journal of Biomechanics.1994;28:339-345.

(1)Schenkman, M., Shipp, K., Chandler, J., Studenski, S., Kuchibhatla., M. “Relationships Between Mobility of Axial Structures and Physical Performance.” Physical Therapy. 1996;76:276-285.

(2) Spinal fusion rates rising, but outcomes not improving. Physical Therapy News. 2006.

Stevans, J. & Hall KG. “Motor Skill Acquisition Strategies for Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain.” JOSPT. 1998;3:165-167.

(1)Takasaki H, Iizawa T, Hall T, Nacamura T, Kaneko S. The influence of increasing sacroiliac joint force enclosure on the hip and lumbar spine extensor muscle firing pattern. Manual Therapy 2009;14: 484-489.

Tsao H, Danneels L, Hodges PW. Individual Fascicles of the paraspinal muscles are activated by discrete cortical networks in humans. Clinical Neurophysiology. Mar 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Welch M. Muscle response pattern to sudden loading in healthy individuals and in patients with chronic low back pain. Article Review. August 2,2004.

Whitman, J., Fritz, J., Childs, M. “The Influence of experience and Specialty Certifications on Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Low Back Pain treated Within a Standardized Physical Therapy Management Program.” JOSPT. 2004;34:662-675.

Whittaker J. Abdominal ultrasound imaging of pelvic floor muscle function in individuals with low back pain. J Manual and Manip Ther. 2004;12:44-49.

(1)Wilde VE, Ford JJ, McKeeken JM. Indicators of lumbar zygapophyseal joint pain: survey of an expert panel with the Delphi technique. Phys Ther. 2007;87; 1348-1361.

Zaproudina, N., Ming, Z. “Plantar Infrared Thermography Measurements and Low Back Pain Intensity.” J Manip Physiol Ther. Vol.29(3);2006:219-223.
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DISC

(2)Apfel CC, Cakmakkaya OS, Martin W, Richmond C, Marcario A, George E, Schaefer M, Pergolizzi JV. Restoration of disk height through non-surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11:155. (Entered March 2011)

Arneds, G. IDET for the Management of Chronic Discogenic Pain: A review of Current Concepts and the Literature. Am Pain Society. 2001;11:1-10.

(1)Arun R, Freeman BJ, Scammell BE, McNally DS, Cox E, Gowland P. 2009 ISSLS Prize Winner: What influence does sustained mechanical load have on diffusion in the human intervertebral disc?: An in vivo study using serial postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Spine. 2009;34(21):2324-2337. (abstract)

(2) Atlas SJ, Tosteson TD, Blood EA, Skinner JS, Pransky GS, Weinstein JN. The impact of workers’ compensation on outcomes of surgical and nonoperative therapy for patients with a lumbar disc herniation: SPORT. Spine. 2010;35(1):89-97. (abstract)

(1)Beattie P. Current understanding of lumbar intervertbral disc degeneration: a review with emphasis upon etiology, pathophysiology, and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging findings. JOSPT. 2008;38:329-340.

Bogduk N. The lumbar disc and low back pain. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1991;2:791-806.

Buckwalter JA. Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Spine. 1995;20:1307-14.

(2)Choi G, Raiturker PP, Kim MJ, Chung DJ, Chae YS, Lee SH. The effect of early isolated lumbar extension exercise program for patients with herniated disc undergoing lumbar discectomy. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(4):764-72.

(2) Flanagan SP, Kulig K. Assessing musculoskeletal performance of the back extensors following a single-level microdisectomy. JOSPT. 2007;37(7):356-362.

(1) Flanagan SP, Kulig K. Time Courses of Adaptation in Lumbar Extensor Performance of Patients With a Single-Level Microdiscectomy During a Physical Therapy Exercise Program. JOSPT. June 2010;40(6):336-344. (Entered January 2011)
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(1) Howell, T. Disc Anatomy and Pathology. 2007.

Keorochana G et al. Effect of Sagittal Alignment on Kinematic Changes and Degree of Disc Degeneration in the Lumbar Spine: An Analysis Using Positional MRI. Spine. May 2011;36(11):893-898. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Kim YS, Park J, Shim JK. Effects of aquatic backward locomotion exercises and progressive resistance exercise on lumbar extension strength in patients who have undergone lumbar discectomy. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2010;91(2):208-14.

(2) Kulig, K., et. Al. An intensive, progressive exercise program reduces disability and improves functional performance in patients after single-level lumbar microdiskectomy. Physical Therapy. Nov 2009; 89(11): 1145-57. March 2010
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(1) Lee JH, An JH, Lee SH. Comparison of the effectiveness of interlaminar and bilateral transforaminal epidural steroid injections in treatment of patients with lumbosacral disc herniation and spinal stenosis. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(3):206-210. (abstract)

(1)Lehto, M., Hurme, M., Alaranta, H., et al. Connective Tissue Changes of the Multifudus Muscle in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: An Immunohistologic Study of Collagen Types I and III and Fibronectin. Spine. 1989;14:302-309.

(1) Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels: An In Vivo Biomechanical Study. Spine. May 2011;36(10):629-637. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Lundon K, Bolton K. Structure and function of the lumbar intervertebral disk in health, aging, and pathologic conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2001;31:291-306.

(1) Osteloe RW, Costa LO, Maher, CG, de Vet HC, van Tulder MW. Rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery: an update cochrnae review. Spine. 2009;34(17):1839-1848.

(2) Pain, disability, and coping reflected in the diurnal cortisol variability in patients scheduled for lumbar disc surgery. European J of Pain. 2008;12(5):663-640.

(2) Patients with herniated disk improved with or without surgery. NEWS – Line for physical therapists & PT Assistants. 2006: 10.

Pettman, E. “What is a ‘typical posteriolateral disc protrusion and how is it so successfully managed by the passive extension protocol innovated by Robin McKenzie An evidence based review.” Excerpt from Level I NAIOMT course from Andrews University.

Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kine G, and Bogduk N. The prevalence and clinical features of internal disc disruption in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine 1995;20:1878-83.

(2) Surgeons Agree to Disagree on Surgical Options for Degenerative Conditions of the Cervical and Lumbar Spine. Spine. Feb 2011;36(3):E203-212. (Entered March 2011)

(1) Takahashi N, Yabuki S, Aoki Y, Kikuchi S. Pathomechanics of nerve root injury caused by disc herneation: an experimental study of mechanical compression and chemical irritation. Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery. 2002. (entered april 2010).
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The Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Spinal Level on the Rate of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: A Review of 1712 Intervertebral Discs. Spine. Aug 2011;36(17):1333-1339. (Entered July 2011)
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Twomey L and Taylor J. Age changes in lumbar intervertebral discs. Acta Orthop Scand 1985;56:496-9.

(1) Veres SP, Robertson PA, Broom ND. The morphology of acute disc herniation: a clinically relevant model defining the role of flexion. Spine. 2009;34(21):2288-2296. (abstract)

(2) Videman T, Gibbons LE, Kaprio J, Battie MC. Challenging the cumulative injury model: positive effects of greater body mass on disc degeneration. Spine. 2010;10(1):26-31. (abstract)

(2) Weinstein, JN., Lurie, JD., Tosteson, TD., Skinner, JS., Hanscom, B., Tosteson, AN., Herkowitz, H., Fischgrund, J., Cammisa, FP., Albert, T., Deyo, RA. Surgical vs nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: the spine patient outcomes research trial (SPORT) observational cohort. (abstract). JAMA. 2006; 296 (20): 2451 – 2459.

(1)Yamashita, T, Yasuhiko, M, Isao, Yokogushi, Ishii, . Mechanosensitive afferent units in the lumbar intervertebral disc and adjacent muscles, Spine. Vol. 18, # 15, Pg 2252-2 1993.
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(1)Yoshihara K, Nakayama Y, Fujii N, Aoki T, Hiromoto I. Atrophy of the multifidus muscle in patients with lumbar disk herniation: histochemical and electromyographic study. (abstract). Orthobluejournal. 2001;493-495.

(1)Yoshihara K, Shirai Y, Nakayama Y, Uesaka S. Histochemical changes in the multifidus muscle in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. (abstract) Spine. 2001;26:622-626.

(1)Zander T, Rohlmann A, Bergmann G. Influence of different artificial disc kinematics on spine biomechanics. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(2):135-142. (abstract)

(1) Zhang YG, Sun Z, Zhang Z, Liu J, Guo X. Risk factors for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation in Chinese population: a case-control study. Spine. 2009;34(25):918-922. (abstract)

(1) Zou J, Yang H, Miyazaki M, et al.. Dynamic bulging on intervertebral discs in the degenerative lumbar spine. Spine. 2009;34(23):2545-2550. (abstract)
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LOW BACK MULTIFIDUS

(1) Ward, S.R., Tomiya, A., Regev, G.J., Thacker, B.E., Benzl, R.C., Kim, C.W., Lieber, R.L. Passive mechanical properties of the lumbar multifidus muscle support its role as a stabilizer. Journal of Biomechanics. 2009; 42: 1384-1389. (Entered May 2011)
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Disorder

SPINAL FRACTURE

Bennell KL, Matthews B, Greig E et al. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function, and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomized, single-blind controlled pilot trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010, 11:36doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-36.
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SPINAL STENOSIS

Depression Is Associated With a Poorer Outcome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Surgery: A Two-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study. Spine. Apr 2011;36(8):677-682. (Entered July 2011)
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(2)Furman MB. Spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication. EMed. Accessed 9/25/2006 from www.emedicine.com/pmr/topic133.htm

(1) Koc Z, Ozcakir S, Sivrioglu K, Gurbet A, Kucukoglu S. Effectiveness of physical therapy and epidural steroid injections in lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine. 2009;34(10):985-989. (abstract)

(1) Lee JH, An JH, Lee SH. Comparison of the effectiveness of interlaminar and bilateral transforaminal epidural steroid injections in treatment of patients with lumbosacral disc herniation and spinal stenosis. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(3):206-210. (abstract)
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Maloney Bacstrom K, Whitman JM, Flynn TW. Lumbar spinal stenosis-diagnosis and management of the aging spine. Manual Therapy. Aug 2011:308-317. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Predominant Leg Pain is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degeneratvie Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results From the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Spine. Feb 2011;36(3):219-229. (Entered March 2011)

(2) Rosomoff, H.L., Rosomoff, R.S. Nonsurgical aggressive treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Spine. 1987; 1 (3): 383 – 400.

The diagnostic value of a treadmill test in predicting lumbar spinal stenosis. European Spine J. 2008;17(5):686-690.

Total Sagittal Spinal Alignment in Patients With Lumbar Canal Stenosis Accompanied by Intermittent Claudication. Spine. April 2010;35(9):E344-E346.

(2) Wilby MJ, Fraser RD, Vernon-Roberts B, Moore RJ. The prevalence and pathogenesis of synovial cysts within the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and radiculopathy. Spine. 2009;34(23):2518-2524. (abstract)

(1)Wencel J, Olson KA. Lumbar spinal stenosis: a literature review. J Manual and Manip Ther. 1999;7:141-148.
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LOW BACK PAIN

(1)Al-Rawahi MS, Luo J, Pollintine P, Adams MA. Do Vertbral Body Osteophytes Resist Bending or Compression? Bristol University, Bristol. Abstract and Comments by Gilbert K in IAOM-US Quarterly Review Volume 61, 1st Quarter 2008.

(1) Aspinall W. Clinical implications of iliopsoas dysfunction. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 1993;1(2):41-46.

Attal N et al. The Neuropathic Components of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prospective Multicenter Study Using the DN4 Questionnaire. The Journal of Pain. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011).

(1) Barakatt E, Romano P, Riddle D, Beckett L. The reliability of maitland’s irritability judgements in patients with low back pain. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 2009; 17(3): 135-140.

(1) Barakatt E, Romano P, Riddle D, Beckett L, Kravitz R. An exploration of maitland’s concept of pain irritability in patients with low back pain. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 2009; 17(4): 196-205.

(1) Beith ID, Kemp A, Kenyon J, Prout M, Chestnut TJ. Identifying neuropathic back and leg pain: a cross-sectional study. Pain. 2011:1-6. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Bishop M, George SZ. Interaction between kinesiophobia and pain amplification in acute back pain. (abstract). JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): A11.

(2)Brooks G, Dripchak S, Vanbeveren P, Allaben S. Is a prescriptive or an open referral related to physical therapy outcomes in patients with lumbar spine-related problems? J of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2008;38(3):109-114.

(2) Cibulka, M.T. Low back pain and its relation to the hip and foot. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 1999; 29 (10): 595 – 601.

(2) Cook, C., Stickley, L., Akram, N., Benavides, Y., Renz, C., Ramey, K. Inter-rater reliability of coupling pattern observations of the pathological lumbar spine: a pilot study. JMMT. 2004; 12 (4): 192 – 198.

(1) Daykin AR, Richardson B. Physiotherapist’s pain beliefs and their influence on the management of patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 2004;29(7):783-795.

Efficacy and safety of Duloxetine (Cymbalta) in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 1 June 2010;35(13):E578-E585.

Du S et al. Self-management programs for chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Patient Education and Counseling. Apr 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Emelee. Discussion section of a low back pain paper.

(2) Ferreira, ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, Herbert RD, Maher C, Refshauge, K. Relationship between spinal stiffness and outcome in patients with chronic low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 61-67. (entered April 2010).
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(2) Finestone AS, Raveh A, Mirovsky Y, Lahad A, & Milgrom C. Orthopaedists and family practitioner’s knowledge of simple low back pain management. Spine. 2009; 34(15): 1600-3.

(2) Fritz JM, Benecluk JM, George SZ. Relationship Between Categorization With the STarT Back Screening Tool and Prognosis for People Receiving Physical Therapy for Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy. May 2011;91(5):722-732. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Fukui S, Ohseto K, Shiotani M, Ohno K, Karasawa H, Naganuma Y. Distribution of referred pain from the lumbar zygapophyseal joints and dorsal rami. Clin J Pain, 1997; 13 (abtract)

(2) Gauvin, M.G., Riddle, D.L., Rothstein, J.M. Reliability of clinical measurements of forward bending using the modified finger-to-floor method. Phys Ther. 1990; 70 (7): 443 – 447.

General Practitioners' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding the Management of Chronic Low Back Pain in Ireland: A Cross-sectional National Survey. Clinical Journal of Pain. Jul/Aug 2011;27(6):542–549. (Entered July 2011)

(2) George, S.Z., Fritz, J.M., Childs, J.D. Investigation of elevated fear-avoidance beliefs for patients with low back pain: a secondary analysis involving patients enrolled in physical therapy clinical trials. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (2): 50 – 57.

(1) George S, Bialosky J, Donald D. The centralization phenomenon and fear-avoidance beliefs as prognostic factors for acute low back pain: a preliminary investigation involving patients classified for specific exercise. 2005; 35 (9): 580-588.

Glattacker M et al. Illness beliefs, treatment beliefs and information needs as starting points for patient information-Evaluation of an intervention for patients with chronic back pain. Patient Education and Counselling. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Godges JJ, Anger MA, Zimmerman G, Delitto A. Effects of education on return-to-work status for people with fear-avoidance beliefs and acute low back pain. Phys Ther, 2008; 88: 231-239.

(2) Goldby LJ. A RCT investigating the efficiency of musculoskeletal physiotherapy on chronic LBP. Spine, 2006 May; 31(10):1083-3 (abstract)

(1) Golightly YM, Tate JJ, Burns CB, Gross MT. Changes in pain and disability secondary to shoe lift intervention in subjects with limb length inequality and chronic low back pain: a preliminary report. JOSPT. 2007;37(7):380-388.

(1) Gombatto SP, Collins DR, Sahrmann SA, Engsberg JR, Lenke LG, VanDillen LR. Symmetry in timing of pelvic and hip motion during hip lateral rotation in individuals with low back pain.

(2) Gombatto S.P., Collins, D.R., Sahrmann, S.A., Engsberg, J.R., Van Dillen, L.R. Patterns of lumbar region movement during trunk lateral bending in 2 subgroups of people with low back pain. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (4): 441 – 454.

(2) Haggman, S., Maher, C.G., Refshauge, K.M. Screening for symptoms of depression by physical therapists managing low back pain. Phys Ther. 2004; 84 (12): 1157 – 1166.

Hagins M, Lamberg EM. Individuals with Low Back Pain Breathe Differently than Healthy Individuals During a Lifting Task. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Jan 2011;41(3):141-148. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Hanson, H., Wagner, M., Monopoli, V., Keysor, J. Low back pain in physical therapists: a cultural approach to analysis and intervention. Work. 2007; 28 (2): 145 – 151. (abstract).

(1) Healey El, Fowler NE, Burden AM, McEwan IM. Raised paraspinal muscle activity reduces rate of stature recovery after loaded exercise in individuals with chronic low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:710-715.

(2) Hicks G, Gaines J, Simonsick E. Associations of back and leg pain with health status and functional capacity of older adults: findings from the retirement community back pain study. (abstract). JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): A11.

(3) Hurwitz, EL., Morgenstern, H., Yu, F. Satisfaction as a predictor of clinical outcomes among chiropractic and medical patients enrolled in the UCLA low back pain study. (abstract). Spine. 2005; 30 (19): 2121 – 2128.

Improving Schoolchildren’s Knowledge of Methods for the Prevention and Management of Low Back Pain: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Spine. Apr 2011;36(8):505-512. (Entered July 2011)
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(1) Jeng C, Cheng T, Kung C, Hsu H. Yoga and disc degenerative disease in cervical and lumbar spine: an MRI imaging-based case control study. Eur Spine J. 2011; 20: 408-413. (Entered April 2011)

Johanson E et al. The effect of acute back muscle fatigue on postural control strategy in people with and without recurrent low back pain. European Spine. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Jacobs J, Henry S, Nagle K. Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require adjustment. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2010. (Abstract) (Entered May 2011)
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Jensen C, Jensen OK, Christiansen DH, Nielsen CV. One-Year Follow-Up in Employees Sick-Listed Because of Low Back Pain: Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Multidisciplinary and Brief Intervention. Spine. July 2011;36(15):1180-1189. (Entered July 2011)

Job strain, work characteristics and back pain: A study in a University hospital. European Journal of Pain. Jul 2011;15(6):634-640.
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(2) Kobesova A, Morris CE, Lewit K, Safarova M. 20 year old pathogenic “active” postsurgical scar: a case study of a patient with persistent right lower quadrant pain. J Manip Phys Ther, 2006; 30(3):234-238.

(2) Kuo Y, Tully E, Galea M. Lumbofemoral rhythm during active hip flexion in standing in health older adults. Man Ther. 2010; 15; 88-92.

(2) Lariviere, C., Gravel, D., Gagnon, D., Arsenault, A.B., Loisel, P., Lepage, Y. Back strength cannot be predicted accurately from anthropometric measures in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. JOSPT. 2003; 33 (12): 758.

(1)Learman KE, Myers JB, Cook CE, et al. Subjects with chronic low back pain in symptom remission do not demonstrate deficits in proprioception. AAOMPT Conference, 2007: 183.

(1)Leerar PJ, Boissonnault W, Domholdt E, Roddey T. Documentation of red flags by physical therapists for patients with low back pain. Jour of Man and Manip Ther, 2007;15: 42-49.

Legal Sequelae of Occupational Back Injuries: A Longitudinal Analysis of Missouri Judicial Records. Spine. Aug 2011;36(17):1402-1409. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Long A, May S, Fung T. The Comparative Prognostic Value of Directional Preference and Centralization: A Useful Tool for Front-Line Clinicians? J Manual & Manipulative Ther. 16(4):248-254.

(1) Low back pain in pts treated surgically for scoliosis: longer than sixteen-year follow up. Spine 15. 2009; 34(20): 2898-2204. (abstract)
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Lund Nielsen TI, Holtemann A, Mork PJ. Physical Exercise, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Chronic Pain in the Low Back and Neck/Shoulders: Longitudinal Data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Amer J of Epidemiology. 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Marras WS, Knapik GG, Ferguson S. Loading along the lumbar spine as influence by speed, control, load magnitude, and handle height during pushing. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(2):155-163. (abstract)

(2) Marshall P, Murphy B. Self-report measures best explain changes in disability compared with physical measures after exercise rehabilitation for chronic low back pain. Spine. 2008;33(3):326-38.

(2) Mitchell, U.H., Wooden, M.J., McKeough, D.M. The short-term effect of lumbar positional distraction. JMMT. 2001; 9 (4): 213 – 221.

Mok NW, Brauer SG, Hodges PW. Postural recovery following voluntary arm movement is impaired in people with chronic low back pain. Gait Posture. May 2011;34(1):97-102. (Entered July 2011)

(1) O’Brien JP. Anterior spinal tenderness in low-back pain syndromes. Spine. 1979;4(1):85-88.

(1) Peterson S, Scott D. Application of a classification system and description of a combined manual therapy intervention: a case with low back related leg pain. JMMT. 2010; 18(2): 89-96. (Entered April 2011)
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(1) Phillips D, Barnard S, Mullee M, Hurley M. Simple anatomical information improves the accuracy of locating specific spinous processes during manual examination of the low back. Man Ther. 2009; 14: 346-350.

Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11:70doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-70.

(1) Radebold, A., Cholewicki, J., Panjabi, M.M., Patel, T.C. Muscle response pattern to sudden trunk loading in healthy individuals and in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 2000; 25 (8): 947 – 954.
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Ribeiroa DC, Solea G, Abbottb JH, Milosavljevica S. Extrinsic feedback and management of low back pain: A critical review of the literature. Manual Therapy. Jun 2011;16(3):231-239. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Richardson CA, Kippers V, Parnianpour M. Relationship between muscle fiber composition and functional capacity of back muscles in healthy subjects and patients with back pain. JOSPT. 1998;27(6):389-401.

(2) Ross MD, Bayer E. Cancer as a cause of LBP in a patient seen in a direct access physical therapy setting. JOSPT , 2005 Oct; 35(10)

(1) Roussel NA, Nijs J, Mottram S, Moorsel AV, Truijen S, Stassijns G. Altered lumbopelvic movement control but not generalized joint hypermobility is associated with increased injury in dancers. A prospective study. Man Ther. 2009;14:630-635.

(1) Ryan C, Gray H, Newton M, Granat M. The relationship between psychological distress and free-living physical activity in individuals with chronic low back pain. Man Ther. 2010; 15: 185-189.

(2) Scholtes SA, Van Dillen LR. Gender-related differences in prevalence of lumbopelvic region movement impairments in people with low back pain. J of Orthopaedic & Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37(12):744-753.

(1) Shaw WS, Main CJ, Johnston V. Addressing Occupational Factors in the Management of Low Back Pain: Implications for Physical Therapist Practice. Physical Therapy. May 2011;91(5):777-789. (Entered July 2011)

Song AY et al. Three-Dimensional kinematic analysis of pelvic and lower extremity differences during trunk rotation in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Physiotherapy. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Smart K, Curley A, Blake C, Staines A, Doody C. The reliability of clinical judgments and criteria associated with mechanisms-based classifications of pain in patients with low back pain disorders: a preliminary reliability study. JMMT. 2010; 18(2): 102-110. (Entered April 2011)
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(1) Takayama K, Nakamura H, Matsuda H. Low back pain in patients treated surgically for scoliosis: longer than sixteen-year follow-up. Spine. 2009;34(20):2198-2204. (abstract)

(1) The Association Between Chronic Low Back Pain and Sleep: A Systematic Review. Clinical Journal of Pain. Feb 2011;27(2):169-181. (Entered March 2011)

(1) Thiese MS, Hegmann KT, Garg A, Porucznik C, Behrens T. The Predictive Relationship of Physical Activity on the Incidence of Low Back Pain in an Occupational Cohort. JOEM. Apr 2011;53(4):364-371. (Entered July 2011)

Tsai Y, Sell TC, Smoliga JM, et al. A Comparison of Physical Characteristics and Swing Mechanics Between Golfers With and Without a History of Low Back Pain. JOSPT. July 2010. 40(7):430-438.

Van de Water ATM et al. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: An age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period. Manual Therapy. Jun 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Van Oostrom SH et al. Ten year course of low back pain in an adult population-based cohort- The Doetinchem Cohort Study. European Journal of Pain. Apr 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Walsh AD, Kelly JS, Johnson SP, Bennetts K. Performance problems of patients with chronic LBP and the measurement of patient centered outcome. Spine, 2004 Jan; 29(1):87-93 (abstract)

(2) Wong, T.K.T, Lee, R.Y.W. Effects of low back pain on the relationship between the movements of the lumbar spine and hip. (abstract). Human Movement Science. 2004; 23 (1): 21 – 34.

(2) Youdas, J.W., Garett, T.R., Egan, K.S., Therneau, T.M. Lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination in adults with chronic low back pain. Phys Ther. 2000; 80 (3): 261 – 275.

(2) Young, S., Aprill, C. Characteristics of a mechanical assessment for chronic lumbar facet joint pain. JMMT. 2000; 8 (2): 78 – 84.
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LBP AND EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENTS

Burns JW et al. Suppression of anger and subsequent pain intensity and behavior among chronic low back pain patients: the role of symptom-specific physiological reactivity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. May 2011.(Entered July 2011)

Dawson AP, Schluter PJ, Hodges PW, Stewart S, Turner C. Fear of movement, passive coping, manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of sick leave due to low back pain. Pain. Jul 2011;152(7):1517-24. (Entered July 2011)

Effects of self-discrepancies on activity-related behaviour: Explaining disability and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain. Pain. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Graya H, Adefolarinb AT, Howea TE. A systematic review of instruments for the assessment of work-related psychosocial factors (Blue Flags) in individuals with non-specific low back pain. Manual Therapy. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Griffin DW, Harmon DC, Kennedy NM. Do patients with chronic low back pain have an altered level and/or pattern of physical activity compared to healthy individuals? A systematic review of the literature. Physiotherapy. June 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Hush JM, Nicholas MK. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Low Back Pain. Case Study and Commentary. (Entered July 2011)
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Individuals with chronic low back pain have greater difficulty in engaging in positive lifestyle behaviours than those without back pain: An assessment of health literacy. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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Preuper HRS et al. Differences in the Relationship Between Psychosocial Distress and Self-Reported Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain in Six Pain Rehabilitation Centers in the Netherlands. Spine. May 2011.(Entered July 2011)

The association between health care professional attitudes and beliefs and the attitudes and beliefs, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with low back pain: A systematic review. European Journal of Pain. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Tlach L, Hampsel P. Long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral training program for the management of depressive symptoms among patients in orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation of chronic low back pain: a 2-year follow-up. European Spine Journal. (Entered July 2011)
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SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

Collaer, J.W., McKeough, D.M., Boissonnault, W.G. Lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis detection with palpation: interrater reliability and concurrent criterion-related validity. JMMT. 2006; 14 (1): 22 – 29.

(1)O’Sullivan PB, Phyty GD, Twomey LT, Allison GT. Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondyloysis or spondylolisthesis. Spine. 1997;22:2959-67. (abstract)

(2) Vaught M. Grading of spondylolisthesis. IAOM. 2009;65:13. (abstract)
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LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY

(2) Al-khayer A, Schueler A, Kruszewski G, Armstrong G, Grevitt MP. Driver reaction time before and after treatment for lumbar radiculopathy. Spine. 2008;33(15):1696-1700. (abstract)

(2) Rainville, J., Jouve, C., Finno, M., Limke, J. Comparison of four tests of quadriceps strength in L3 or L4 radiculopathies. Spine. 2003; 28 (21): 2466 – 2471.

(2)Riew KD, Park JB, Cho YS, et al. Nerve root blocks in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain. A minimum five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88(8):1722-1725. (abstract)

(1)Robinson, J. “Lower Extremity Pain of Lumbar Spine Origin: Differentiating Somatic referred and Radicular Pain.” J of Manual & Manip Ther. 2003;11:223-234.

(2) Wilby MJ, Fraser RD, Vernon-Roberts B, Moore RJ. The prevalence and pathogenesis of synovial cysts within the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and radiculopathy. Spine. 2009;34(23):2518-2524. (abstract)
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NEURAL TENSION

Allen RJ, Wu C, Horiuchi G, Friends JW, Campbell KR. Pressure desensitization effects on pressure tolerance and function in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Orthop Pract. 2004;16:13-16.

(2) Barr, A.E. Tissue pathophysiology, neuroplasticity and motor behavioral changes in painful repetitive motion injuries. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 173 – 174.

Beneciuk J, Viti J, Baldwin T. The use of passive slump stretching as an intervention in the treatment of a patient with signs and symptoms consistent with adverse neural tension: a case report. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

(2) Boyd BS, Wanek L, Gray AT, Topp KS. Mechanosensitivy of the lower extremity nervous system during straight-leg raise neurodynamictesting in healthy individuals. JOSPT. 2009; 39(11): 780-790. (entered May 2010).
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(1)Catalano M, Nordstrom T. Physical therapy interventions to improve lumbar spine range of motion and neurodynamics in a patient with bilateral calf pain. Kaiser Permanente Medical Center.

Cleland, J., Hunt G., & Palmer, J. “Effectiveness of Neural Mobilization in the Treatment of a Patient with Lower extremity Neurogenic Pain: a Single-Case Design.” J of Manual & Manip Ther. 2004;12:143-152

De Burca N. Anterior thigh pain – A case report. Manual Therapy. 2010;16(2011):291-295. (Entered July 2011)

Edgelow, Peter. “Neurovascular Consequences of Cumulative Trauma Disorders Affecting the Thoracic Outlet: A Patient-Centered Treatment Approach.” Physical Therapy of The Shoulder 4th edition by R. Donatelli. 205-238. Book Chapter.

Edgelow PI. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: a new approach to treatment. 1993. (under neural tension in red folder.)

(1)Ellis RF, Hing WA. Neural mobilization: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with an analysis of therapeutic efficacy. J of Manual & Manip Ther. 2008;16:8-22.
Herrington L (abstracted by Kerry Gilbert in IAOM-US Quarterly Review 2006 (4th Quarter); vol. 56:2-3.). Effect of different neurodynamic mobilization techniques on knee range of motion in the slump position. J Man & Manip Ther. 2006;14:101-107.

Johnson RD, Courtney CA. Identification of potential factors suggesting double crush phenomenon: two case reports. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

Klingman RE. The pseudoradicular syndrome: a case report implicating double crush mechanisms in peripheral nerve tissue of the lower extremity. J Manual and Manip Ther. 1999;7:81-91.

Laska T, Hannig K. Physical therapy for spinal accessory nerve injury complicated by adhesive capsulitis. Phys Ther. 2001;81:936-944.

Reisch, R., Williams, K., Nee, R., Rutt, R. ULNT2 – Median Nerve Bias: Examiner Reliability and Sensory responses in Asymptomatic Subjects. J of Manual & ManipTher. 2005;13: 44-55.

(1)Robertson S. Neuroanatomical review of visceral pain. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 1999;7;131-140.

Robert, R., Prat-Pratdal, D., Labat, J., Bensignor, M., et al.”Pudendal NerveEntrapment.” Surg Radiol Antat. Vol.20; Dec.1998: 93-98.

Seror P (abstracted by Robert Moss in IAOM-US Quarterly Review 2006 (4th Quarter); vol. 56:2-3.). Smptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome in women with carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:2324-2329.

(1) Talebi GA, Taghipour-Darzi M, Norouzi-Fashkhami A. Treatment of chronic radiculopathy of the first sacral nerve root using neuromobilization techniques: A case study. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. 2010;23(3):151-159. (Entered March 2011)

Topp KS, Boyd BS. Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerves: nerve responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapist practice. Phys Ther. 2006;86:92-108.

Van der Heide B, Bourgoin C, Eils G, Garnevall B, Blackmore M (abstracted by Kerry Gilbert in IAOM-US Quarterly Review 2006 (4th Quarter); vol. 56:2-3.). Test-retest reliability and face validity of a modified neural tissue provocation test in patients with cervicobrachial pain syndrome. J Manual Manip Ther. 2006;14:30-36.

(1)Von Piekartz HJM, Schouten S, Aufdemkampe G. Neurodynamic responses in children with migraine or cervicogenic headache versus a control group. A comparative study. Manual Ther. 2007;12:153-160.

(1)Walsh J, Flatley M, Johnston N, Bennett K. Slump test: sensory responses in asymptomatic subjects. J Man and Manip Ther, 2007; 15: 231-238.

(2) Walsh J, Hall T. Reliability, validity and diagnostic accuracy of palpation of the sciatic, tibial and common peroneal nerves in the examinationof low back related leg pain. Manual Therapy. 2009;14: 623-629. (entered May 2010).
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Treatments/Tests

CLASSIFICATION OF LBP

(2) Astfalck RG, O’Sullivan PB, Straker LM, Smith AJ. A detailed XXXrolapsedXXXonsXXXons of pain, disability, physical and psychological features of a small group of adolescents with non-specific chronic low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2010;15:240-247.

Axen I et al. Clustering patients on the basis of their individual course of low back pain over a six month period. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011;12(99):1-31. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Christiansen D, Larsen K, Jensen OK, Nielsen CV. Pain Response Classification Does Not Predict Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Low Back Pain Who Are Sick-Listed. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):606-615. (Entered January 2011)
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Cleland, J., Fritz, J., Whitman, J., Childs, J., Palmer, J. The Use of a Lumbar Spine Manipulation Technique by Physical Therapists in Patients Who Satisfy a Clinical Prediction Rule: A Case Series. JOSPT. 2006;36 (4):209-214.

(1) Clinical Investigation of Pain-related Fear and Pain Catastrophizing for Patients With Low Back Pain. Clinical Journal of Pain. Feb 2011;27(2):108-115. (Entered March 2011)

Cook, C. Sub-group Classification of Low Back Related Leg Pain: Is this the Catalyst Needed for Other Challenging Conditions? JMMT 2009; 17(2): 70-71.

(1)Dankaerts W, O’Sullivan PB, Burnett AF, Straker LM. The use of a mechanism-based classification system to evaluate and direct management of a patient with non-specific chronic low back pain and motor control impairment—A case report. Manual Ther. 2007;12:181-191.

Dellito, A., Erhard, RE., Bowling,RE. A treatment-based classification approach to low back syndrome: identifying and staging patients for conservative treatment. Phys. Ther.1995;6:470-85.

(1)Friberg R, Thurmond S. Construct validity of lumbar spine classification system. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference 2005.

Fritz, JM., Delitto,A., Erhard, RE. Comparison of classification-based physical therapy with therapy based on clinical practical guidelines for patients with patients with acute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine.2003;1:363-1371.

Froud R et al. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: A modified Delphi study. European Journal of Pain. May 2011. (Entered July 2

(1)Grenier S.E., McGill S.M. Quantification of Lumbar Stability by Using 2 Different Abdominal Activation Strategies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88:54-62.

(2) Harris-Hayes M, Van Dillen LR. The inter-tester reliability of physical therapists classifying low back pain problems based on the movement system impairment classification system. J Injury, Function, Rehabil. 2009;1(2):117-126. (abstract)

(2) Jackson Elaine, Sarvaiya-Shah Shweta, Wang Sharon. Interrater Reliability of a Movement Impairment-Based Classification System for Lumbar Spine Syndromes in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006: 38: 371-376.

(2) Kent, P.M., Keating, J.L. Can we predict poor recovery from recent-onset nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 12-28.

Last AR, Hulbert D. Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management. Am Fam Physician. Jun 2009;79(12):1067-1074. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Long, A., Donelson, R., Fung, T., Spratt, K. Are acute, chronic, back pain-only, and sciatica-with-neural-deficit valid low back pain subgroups? Not for most patients. (abstract). J of Man & Manip Ther. 2007: 184.

(1)Oostendorp RA, Scholten-Peeters GGM, Swinkels RAHM et al. Evidence-based practice in physical and manual therapy: development and content of Dutch national practice guidelines for patients with non-specific low back pain. J Manual Manipulative Ther. 2004;12:21-31.

(1)O’Sullivan P. Classification of lumbopelvic pain disorder-why is it essential for management. Man Ther. 2006;11:169-170.

(1) Peterson S, Scott D. Application of a classification system and description of a combined manual therapy intervention: a case with low back related leg pain. JMMT. 2010; 18(2): 89-96. (Entered April 2011)
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Schafer A. Interrater reliability of a new classification system for patients with neural low back related leg pain. JMMT. 2009; 17(2): 109-117.

Schafer A. Hall T., Briffa K. Classification of Low Back-Related Leg Pan – A Proposed Patho-Mechanism Based-Approach. Man Ther 2009; 14: 222-230.

(1)Scott W, Stevens J, Binder-Macleod SA. Human skeletal muscle fiber type classifications. Phys Ther. 2001;81:1810-1816.

Sitting Postures and Trunk Muscle Activity in Adolescents With and Without Nonspecific Low Back Pain: An Analysis Based on Subclassification. Spine; 15 June 2010; 35(14):1387-1395.

(1) Stanton TR et al. Evaluation of a Treatment-Based Classification Algorithm for Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study. Physical Therapy. Apr 2011;91(4):496-509. (Entered July 2011)

The cost-effectiveness of a treatment-based classification system for low back pain: design of a randomized control trial and economic evaluation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11:58doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-58.

(1) Trudelle-Jackson E, Sarvaiya SA, Wang SS. Inter-rater reliability of a movement impairment based classification for lumbar spine syndromes in patients with chronic LBP. JOSPT, 2008 June; 38(6)

(3) Van Dillen, L.R., Sahrmann, S.A., Wagner, J.M. Classification, intervention, and outcomes for a person with lumbar rotation with flexion syndrome. Phys Ther. 2005; 85 (4): 336 – 351.

Walsh J. Classification of LBLP: Do subgroups differ in disability and psychosocial factors? JMMT. 2009; 17(2): 118-122.
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FUNCTIONAL TESTS

(1) Johnson GS, Johnson V. Assessment for a postural component to spinal pain. Physiotherapy Associates. (Entered May 2011)
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Muraki S et al. Health-Related Quality of Life in Subjects With Low Back Pain and Knee Pain in a Population-Based Cohort Study of Japanese Men: The Research on Osteoarthritis Against Disability Study. Spine. Jul 2011;36(16):1312-1319. (Entered July 2011)

Sanchez-Zuriaga D et al. Reliability and Validity of a New Tool for Low Back Pain Functional Assessment. Spine. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING OF LUMBAR SPINE

(2) Beattie, P.F., Morgan, P.S., Peters, D. Diffusion – weighted magnetic resonance imaging of normal and degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs: a new method to potentially quantify the physiologic effect of physical therapy intervention. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (2): 42 – 46.

(1) Cheung K, Karppinen J, Guo G, Fan B, Leong J, Luk K. Relationship between MRI changes of the Lumbar Spine and Low Back Pain: A MRI Study of 1045 Population Based Subjects. From the Lumbar Spine Annual Meeting June 10-14 2007, Hong Kong, China. Abstract and Comments by Gilbert, K in IAOM-US Quarterly Review Volume 61, 1st Quarter 2008.

(2) Fritz JM, Piva SR, Childs JD. Accuracy of the clinical examination to predict radiographic instability of the lumbar spine. Euro Spine J, 2005 Dec; 14(8):743-750 (abstract)

(1)Les AS, Shadden SC, Figueroa CA, Park JM, Tedesco MM, Herfkens RJ, Dalman RL, Taylor CA. Quantification of hemodynamics in abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 201004;38(4):1288-313.

The prevalence of MRI-defined spinal pathoanatomies and their association with Modic changes in individuals seeking care for low back pain. European Spine Journal. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LUMBAR SPINE

(1)Brady RJ, Dean JB, Skinner TM, Gross MT. Limb length inequality: clinical implications for assessment and intervention. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33:221-234.

(2) Cook C, Brismee JM, Sizer PS. Subjective and objective descriptors of clinical lumbar spine instability: a Delphi study. Man Ther, 2006; 11:11-21

(1) Explanatory and Diagnostic Labels and Perceived Prognosis in Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine. Oct 2010;35(21):1120-1125. (Entered January 2011)

(1)Lyle, M., Manes, S., McGuinness, M., Ziaei, S., and Iversen, M. Relationship of Physical Therapy Examination Findings and Self-reported Symptom Severity and Physical Function in Patients With Degenerative Lumbar Conditions. Phys Ther. 2005;85:120-133.

(2)Paatelma M., Karvonen E, Heiskanen J. Clinical perspective: how do clinical test results differentiate chronic and subacute low back pain patients from “non-patients”? The J of Man & Manipulative Ther. 17:1: 11-20.

(1)Stowell T, Cioffredi W, Greiner A, Clelannd J. Abdominal differential diagnosis in a patient referred to a physical therapy clinic for low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:755-764.

(2)Thien-Nissenbaum J, Boissonnault WG. Differential diagnosis of spondylolysis in a patient with chronic LBP. JOSPT, 2005 May; 35(5)

(2) Troyer MR. Differential diagnosis of endometriosis in a young adult woman with non-specific LBP. Phys Ther, 2007 Jun; 87(6)

(2) Van Dillen L, Maluf K, Sahrmann S. further examination of modifying patient-preferred movement and alignment strategies in patients with low back pain during symptomatic tests.

(1) Walker BF, & Williamson OD. Mechanical or inflammatory low back pain. What are the potential signs and symptoms? Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 314-320. (entered april 2010).
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OSWESTRY

(2) Davidson, M. Rasch analysis of three versions of the oswestry disability questionnaire. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 222 – 231.

(1)Fairbank J, Couper J, Davies JB, Rien J. The oswestry low back pain disability XXXrolapsedXXXons. Physiother.1980;66: 271-3.
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LBP MANUAL THERAPY

(1) Bicalho., E., Antonio, P.S., Macagnan, J., Rivas Cano, J.L., Manffra, E.F. Immediate effects of a high-velocity spine manipulation in paraspinal muscles activity of nonspecific chronic low-back pain subjects. Man Ther. 2010; 15:469-475.

Kim JI et al. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific lower back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial. Trials. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2

Paoloni M et al. Kinesio Taping applied to lumbar muscles influences clinical and electromyographic characteristics in chronic low back pain patients. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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Rubinstein SM et al. Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Chronic Low-Back Pain: An Update of a Cochrane Review. Spine. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Chronic Low-Back Pain: An Update of Cochrane Review. (Entered July 2011)
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LUMBAR MOTOR CONTROL

Ostelo, RW., Costa, LO., Maher, CG., de Vet, HC., van Tulder, MW. Rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery: An update Cochrane review. August 2009; 34(17): 1839-48. (abstract) March 2010.
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(1) Rasmussen-Barr E, Ang B, Arvidsson I, Nilson-Wilkmar L. Graded exercise for recurrent low-back pain: a randomized, controlled trial with 6-, 12-, and 36-month follow ups.2010; 34(3): 221-228. (abstract) March 2010

Ribeiro RD, Sole G, Abbot JH, Milosavljevic S. A rationale for the provision of extrinsic feedback towards management of low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2011;16(2011):301-305. (Entered July 2011)

Ribeiro RD, Sole G, Abbot JH, Milosavljevic S. Extrinsic feedback and management of low back pain: A critical review of the literature. Manual Therapy. 2011;16(2011):231-239. (Entered July 2011)
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Tsao H, Danneels LA, Hodges PW. Smudging the motor brain in young adults with recurrent low back pain. Spine. Apr 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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LUMBAR MANIPULATION

(1) A Cochrane Review of Combined Chiropractic Interventions for Low-Back Pain. Spine. Feb 2011;36(3):230-242. (Entered March 2011)

(1)Bialosky JE, Bishop M, Robinson M, Zeppieri Jr. G, George S. Spinal manipulative therapy has an immediate effect on thermal pain sensitivity in people with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009; 89(12): 1292-1303.

(1)Bialosky JE, George SZ, Bishop MD. How spinal manipulative therapy works: why ask why? JOSPT. 2008;38:293-295.

(1)Bialosky JE, George SZ, Bishop MD, Zeppieri G, Robinson ME. Immediate effects of spinal manipulative therapy in subjects with low back pain: a pilot study. Ortho & Sprts Phys Ther 2008;38:A13.

(1)Bialosky JE, Bishop M, Robinson M, ZeppieriJr. G, George S. The influence of expectations on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9(19):9-10.

Biely S, George SZ, Bishop MD, Zeppieri G, Robinson ME. Immediate effects of spinal manipulative therapy in subjects with low back pain: a pilot study. JOSPT. 2008;38:A13.

(2) Brenner AK. Use of lumbosacral region manipulation and therapeutic exercise for a patient with a lumbosacral transitional vertebra and LBP. JOSPT, 2005 June; 35(6)

(1) Cecchi F, Molino LR, Chiti M, Pasquini G, Paperini A, Conti AA, Macchi C. Spinal manipulations compared with back school and with indivully delivered physiotherapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up. Clinical Rehab. 2010;24(1):26-36.

(2) Chen J, Phillips A, Ramsey M, Schenk R. A case study examiming the effectiveness of mechanical diagnosis and therapy in a patient who met the clinical prediction rule for spinal manipulation. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 2009; 17(4): 216-220.

(1)Childs JD, Flynn TW, Fritz JM. A perspective for considering the risks and benefits of spinal manipulation in patients with low back pain. Man Ther. 2006;11:316-320.

Cleland, J., Fritz, J., Whitman, J., Childs, J., Palmer, J. The Use of a Lumbar Spine Manipulation Technique by Physical Therapists in Patients Who Satisfy a Clinical Prediction Rule: A Case Series. JOSPT. 2006;36 (4):209-214.

(2) Gill NW, Teyhen DS, Lee IE. Improved contraction of the transversus abdominis immediately following spinal manipulation: a case study using real-time ultrasound imaging. Man Ther. 2007; 12: 280-285.

(1) Hallegraeff HJ, de Greef M, Winters JC, Lucas C. Manipulative therapy and clinical prediction criteria in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain. Percept Mot Skills. 2009;108(1):196-208. (abstract)

(1) Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J. Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain: A Clinical Perspective. J Manual & Manipulative Ther. 16(4): 198-207.

Henkelman NR, Teyhen DS, Childs JD. Changes in lateral abdominal muscle function after spinal manipulation: a case series. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

Koppenhaver SL et al. Association Between Changes in Abdominal and Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Thickness and Clinical Improvement After Spinal Manipulation. JOSPT. 2011;41(6):389-399. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Mintken P, Carpenter K, Whitman J. Management of a patient with acute low back pain using the lumbopelvic region manipulation clinical prediction rule and the treatment-based classification system.

(2) Niemisto, L., Lahtinen-Suopanki, T., Rissanen, P., Lindgren, K.A., Sarna, S., Hurri, H. A randomized trial of combined manipulation, stabilizing exercises, and physician consultation compared to physician consultation alone for chronic low back pain. Spine. 2003; 28 (19): 2185 – 2191.

(1) Perry J, Green A, Singh S, Watson P. A preliminary investigation into the magnitude of effect of lumbar extension exercises and a segmental rotatory manipulation on sympatheric nervous system activity. Manual Therapy. 2011; 16: 190-195. (Entered April 2011)

Rubinstein SM et al. Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Chronic Low-Back Pain: An Update of a Cochrane Review. Spine. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Review. 2011;5. (Entered July 2011)

Stubenrauch JM, Pfeifer GM. Spinal Manipulation Therapy for Low-Back Pain. American Journal of Nursing. May 2011;111(5):18. (Entered July 2011)
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LUMBAR MOBILIZATION

(1) Beattie PT, Donley JW, Arnot CF, Miller R. The Change in the Diffusion of Water in the Normal and Degenerative Lumbar Intervertebral Discs Following Joint Mobilization Compared to Prone Lying. JOSPT. Jan 2009; 39(1): 4-11

(3)Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans RL, Bouter LM. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review. Spine, 2004 May-Jun; 4(3):335-56.

(2) Perry, J., & Green, A. An investigation into the effects of a unilaterally applied lumbar mobilization technique on peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity in the lower limbs. Manual Therapy. 2008; 13: 492-499. (entered april 2010).

(1) Willett E, Hebron C, Krouwel O. The initial effects of different rates of lumbar XXXrolapsedXXXons on pressure pain thresholds in asymptomatic subjects. Man Ther. 2010; 15: 173-178.
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LBP EXERCISE

(1) Ferreira M, Smeets R, Kamper S, Ferreira P, Machado L. Can we explain heterogeneity among randomized clinical trials of exercises for chronic back pain? A meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2010; 90(10): 1383-1403. (Entered April 2011)

(1) Wand BM, O’Connell NE, Di Pietro F, Bulsara M. Managing Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain With a Sensorimotor Retraining Approach: Exploratory Multiple-Baseline Study of 3 Participants. Physical Therapy. Apr 2011;91(4):535-546. (Entered July 2011)
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MCKENZIE

Al-Obaidi SM et al. Evaluation of the McKenzie Intervention for Chronic Low Back Pain by Using Selected Physical and Bio-Behavioral Outcome Measures. PM&R. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Browder DA, Childs JA, Fritz JM. Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2007;87(12):1608-18, discussion:1577-9. (abstract).

(2) Browder DA, Childs JD, Cleland JA, Fritz, JM. Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (12): 1608 – 1618.

(2)Choi G, Raiturker PP, Kim MJ, Chung DJ, Chae YS, Lee SH. The effect of early isolated lumbar extension exercise program for patients with herniated disc undergoing lumbar discectomy. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(4):764-72.

(1)Clare HA, Adams R, Maher CG. Construct validity of lumbar extension measures in McKenzie’s derangement syndrome. Man Ther 2007; 12: 328-334.

(1)Hefford C. McKenzie classification of mechanical spinal pain: profile of syndromes and directions of preference. Man Ther, 2008; 13: 75-81.

(2) May, S., Gardiner, E., Young, S., Klaber-Moffett, J. Predictor variables for a positive long-term functional outcome in patients with acute and chronic neck and back pain treated with a McKenzie approach: a secondary analysis. JMMT. 2008; 16 (3): 155 – 160.

(1) Machado L, de Souza M, von Sperling B, Ferreira P, Ferreira M. The McKenzie Method for low back pain: A systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis approach. Spine. Apr 2006; 31(9): E254-E262. (Abstract) (Entered May 2011)
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(2) Padmanabhan G, Sambasivan A, Desai M. Three-step treadmill test and McKenzie mechanical diagnosis and therapy to establish directional preference in a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis: a case report. JMMT. 2011; 19(1): 35-42. (Entered April 2011)
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(2) Petersen, T., Larsen, K., Jacobsen, S. One-year follow-up comparison of the effectiveness of McKenzie treatment and strengthening training for patients with chronic low back pain: outcome and prognostic factors. (abstract). Spine. 2007; 32 (26): 2948 – 2956.

Pettman, E. “What is a ‘typical posteriolateral disc protrusion and how is it so successfully managed by the passive extension protocol innovated by Robin McKenzie An evidence based review.” Excerpt from Level I NAIOMT course from Andrews University.

Powers CM, Beneck GJ, Kulig K, Landel RF, Fredericson M. Effects of a single session of posterior-to-anterior spinal mobilization and press-up exercise on pain response and lumbar spine extension in people with nonspecific low back pain. Phys Ther. 2008;88(4):485-494.
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SLUMP TEST

(1)Walsh J, Flatley M, Johnston N, Bennett K. Slump test: sensory response in asymptomatic subjects. J of Manual & Manip Ther. 2007;15:231-238.
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LBP TRIGGER POINTS

(1) Lewis, C., Souvlis, T., Sterling, M. Sensory characteristics of tener points in the lower back. Manual Ther. 2010;15:451-456.
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LUMBAR FUSION

DePalma MJ, Ketchum JM, Saullo TR. Etiology of Chronic Low Back Pain in Patients Having Undergone Lumbar Fusion. Pain Medicine. 2011:1-8. (Entered July 2011)

Nguyen TH, Randolph DC, Talmage F, Succop P, Travis R. Long-term Outcomes of Lumbar Fusion Among Workers Compensation Subjects. Spine. Feb 2011;36(4):320-331. (Entered July 2011)
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Sacroiliac Region

Structure

SI JOINT

(2) Ando A. Evaluation and treatment of unilateral sacrums with concurrent ilial and coccygeal dysfunctions. 2003.

(2) Dar G, et. Al. Sacroiliac joint fusion and the implications for manual therapy diagnosis and treatment. Manual Ther. 2008;13:155-158.

(2) DonTigny, R.L. Critical analysis of the sequence and extent of the result of the pathological failure of self-bracing of the sacroiliac joint. JMMT. 1999; 7 (4): 173 – 181.

Elgelid S. Piriformis function and rehabilitation based on muscle spindle density. JOSPT. 34(1). (abstract)

(1) Karim A. Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in a Male Professional Contemporary Dancer with Low Back Pain. (Entered January 2011)
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(1)Lee D. Recent advances in the assessment and treatment of the sacroiliac joint- stability and the role of motor control. Presented at the: American Back Society Meeting, San Fransisco 2005. www. Dianelee.ca

(2) McGaugh, JM, Sizer, PS, Brisee, JM, Dedrick, GS. Comparing the anatomical accuracy of the posterior superior iliac spine to the iliac crest as a reference landmark for vertebral location in the lumbar spine: a retrospective radiographic study. (abstract). Clin Anat. 2007; 20 (7): 819 – 825.

Pool-Goudzwaard, A., Hoek vanDijke,G., Mulder, P., Spoor, C., Snijders,C., Stoeckart,R. The iliolumbar ligament: it’s influence on stability of the sacroiliac joint. Clin Biomech. 2003;18:99-105.

(1)Sebastian D. The anatomical and physiological variations in the sacroiliac joint of the male and female: clinical implications. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2000;8:127-134.

(2)Rosatelli AL, Agur AM, Chhaya S. Anatomy of the interosseous region of the sacroiliac joint. JOSPT, April 2004; 36(4): 200-8

(1)Voorn R. Case report: can sacroiliac joint dysfunction cause chronic Achilles tendonitis? JOSPT. 1998;27:436-443.

(1) Young, S., Laslett, M., Aprill, C.N., Kelly, C.K. The sacroiliac joint: a study comparing diagnosis by physical examination and contrast enhanced diagnostic block arthrography.
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SI JOINT MOVEMENT

(1) Bussey, M., Bell, M. & Milosavljevic, S. The influence of hip abduction and external rotation on sacroiliac motion. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 520-5.

(1)Goode A, Hegedus EJ, Sizer P, et al. Three-dimensional movements of the sacroiliac joint: a systematic review of the literature and assessment of clinical utility. The J of Man & Manip Ther, 2008; 16: 25-38.
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COCCYX

(2) Heinrich S. Treatment of sacro-coccygeal dysfunction: dealing with a delicate issue in therapy. Phys Ther Forum, 1992 May 22

(1)Heller M. The Coccyx. www.coccyx.org. ?

(2) Schapiro S. Low back and rectal pain from an orthopedic and proctologic viewpoint. Am J of Surgery, 1950 January; pg 117-128.

(1)The Coccyx (chapter out of text). 259-263.
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Disorder

SI JOINT PAIN

Etiology of Chronic Low Back Pain in Patients Having Undergone Lumbar Fusion. Pain Medicine. Apr 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Foley BS, Buschbacher RM. Sacroiliac joint pain: anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85(12):997-1006. (abstract)

Huijbregts, P.A. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of the painful sacroiliac joint. JMMT. 2008; 16 (8): 153 – 154.

(2) Laslett, M. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of the painful sacroiliac joint. JMMT. 2008; 16 (3): 142 – 154.

(1)Laslett M, Young SB, et al. Diagnosing painful sacroiliac joints: a validity study of mckenzie evaluation and sacroiliac provocation tests. Abstracted by Deb Benson, 2005 IAOM Quarterly Review. Austral J Physiother. 2003;49:89-97.

(1) O’Sullivan PB, Beales DJ. Changes in pelvic floor and diaphragm kinematics and respiratory patterns in subjects with SI joint pain following motor learning intervention: a case series. Manual Ther, 2007; 12:209-218.

(1)O’Sullivan PB, Beales DJ, Beetham JA et al. (abstracted by Dan Ness in IAOM-US Quarterly Review. 2005 (1st Quarter) vol. 49:9-10.). Altered motor control strategies in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain during the active straight-leg-raise test. Spine. 2002;27:E1-8.

Patients’ Own Accounts of Sciatica: A Qualitative Study. Spine. Jul 2011;36(15):1251-1256. (Entered July 2011)

Risk factors of sciatic pain: A prospective study among middle-aged employees. European Journal of Pain. Jul 2011;15(6):584-590. (Entered July 201

Sacroiliac Joint Pain after Lumbar and Lumbosacral Fusion: Findings Using Dual Sacroiliac Joint Blocks. Pain Medicine. Apr 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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COCCYDYNIA

(1) Jean-Yves M, Chatellier G. Comparison of three manual coccydynia treatments: a pilot study. Spine. 2001;26(20):479-484.

(1) Maigne JY, Chatellier G. Comparison of three manual coccydynia treatments. Spine. 2001;26(20);

(1)Maigne JY, Doursounian L, Chatellier G. Causes and Mechanisms of Common Coccydynia. Spine;25(23):3072-3079.

(1)Maigne JY, Guedj S, Straus C. Idiopathic coccygodynia. Lateral roentgenograms in the sitting position and coccygeal discography. Spine. 1994;19:930-934.

(1)Maigne JY. Management of Common Coccydynia. www.coccyx.org. 2002: 1-10

(1)Thiele GH. Coccygodynia, the mechanism of its production and its relationship to anorectal disease. Am J or Surg. 1950:110-116.
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Treatments/Tests

SI JOINT BELT

(2)Damen S, Spoor CW Snijders CJ. Does a pelvic belt influence sacroiliac joint laxity. Clin Biomech, 2002; 17(7):495-98 (abstract)

Lee, D.G. The COM-PRESSOR. A specific pelvic compression belt.
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SI JOINT TEST RELIABILITY

(1) Arab AM, Abdollahi I, Joghataei MT, Golafshani Z, Kazemnejad A.Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of single and composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint. Man Ther. 2009;14(2):213-221. (abstract)

(2)Robinson HS, Brox JI, Robinson R, Bjelland E, Solem S, Telje T. The reliability of selected motion and pain provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint. Manual Ther, 2007; 12:72-79.

Validity of the Straight-Leg Raise Test for Patients With Sciatic Pain With or Without Lumbar Pain Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results as a Reference Standard. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Jun 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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COCCYX MANIPULATION

(2) Maigne JY, Chatellier G, Faou ML, Arachambeau M. The treatment f chronic coccydnia with intrarectal manipulation: a RCT. Spine, 2006 Aug; 31(18):E621-7 (abstract)
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Pelvic Region

Structure

PELVIC FLOOR

(2) Agur WI, Steggles P, Waterfield M, Freeman RM. The long-term effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training: eight-year follow up of a randomized controlled trial. BJOG. 2008 Jul 115(8):985-90

(1) Apte G. Considerations of Pelvic Floor Muscle Dysfunction in Treatment of Pelvic Pain, Low Back Pain and Incontinence. (Entered January 2011)
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(1)Arab AM, Behbahani RB, Lorestani L, Azari A. Assessment of pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without low back pain using transabdominal ultrasound. Manual Therapy. 2010;15:235-239.

(2) Bo K, Sherburn M. Evaluation of female pelvic floor muscle function and strength. Phys Ther, 2005 Mar;85(3)

(3) Centracchio T. Colon hydrotherapy: a forgotten art. Am Chiropractor, 1986 Oct.

(1) Fisher, K.A. Management of dyspareunia and associated levator ani muscle overactivity. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (7): 935 – 941.

(2)Fitzgerald MP, Kotarinos R. Rehabilitation of the short pelvic floor: background and patient evaluation. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct, 2003 Oct; 14(4):261-8 (abstract)

(2) Gentilcone-Saulnier E, McLeon S, Goldfinger C, Pukall CF, Chaulerbain S. Pelvic floor muscle assessment outcomes in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia and the impact of a physical therapy program. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. (2 Pt 2):1003-22.

(2) Glazer HI. Measuring muscle. Advance for Directors in Rehab, Nov 2001.

(2) Hall J, Cleland JA, Palmer JA. The effects of manual physical therapy and therapeutic exercise on peripartum posterior pelvic pain: two case reports. J Man Manip Ther, 2005;13(2)

(2) Mann O. Pelvic joint dysfunctions, lifting injuries, and testicular pain. J Occ and Environ Med, 1998 May; 40(5).

(2) Prendergast SA, Weiss JM. Screening for musculoskeletal causes of pelvic pain. Clin Ob Gyn, 2003 Dec; 46(4)

(2) Sinaki M, Merritt JL, Stillwell GK. Tension myalgia of the pelvic floor. Mayo Clin Prac, 1977; 52:717-722

(2) Smith DA. Out in the open. Advance for Directors in Rehab, March 2001

(2) Solving the pain puzzle of pelvic floor dysfunction. Advance for PTs and PTAs, Feb 2001

(2) Stuge B, Morkved S, Dahl HH, Vollestad N. Abdominal and pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without long lasting pelvic girdle pain. Manual Therapy. 2006; 11:287-296.

(1) Van Alstyne L, Harrington K, Haskvitz E. Physical therapist management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Physical Therapy. 2010 Dec; 90 (12): 1795-1806. (Entered April 2011).
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(2) VanKampen M, DeWeerdt W, Claes H, Feys H, DeMaeyer M, VanPoppel. Treatment of erectile dysfunction by perineal exercise, electromyographic biofeedback, and electrical stimulation. Phs Ther, 2003 June; 83(6)

(2) Vincent C. Anorectal Pain and Irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, purities ani. Primary Care; Clinics in Office Practice, 1999 Mar; 26(1).
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PELVIC GIRDLE

(2) Apte, G. Pain Management Special Interest Group: case study. Ortho Pract. 2008; 20 (1): 35 – 38.

(1)Dorman, T., Brierly, S., Fray,J., Pappani, K. Muscles and Pelvic Clutch. The Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. Vol.3(3); 1995: 85-90.

(2) Elgelid S. Piriformis function and rehabilitation based on muscle spindle density. JOSPT. 34(1). (abstract).

(1)Franke BA. Formative dynamics: the pelvic girdle. J Manual & Manip Ther. 2003;11:12-40.

(1) Heathcock JC, Bhat AN, Lobo MA, Galloway JC. Ther Performance of Infants Born Preterm and Full-term in the Mobile Paradigm: Learning and Memory. Phys Ther. 2004;84(9):808-801-808. (Entered January 2011)

(1) Lee D. The Pelvic Girdle: An Approach to the Examination and Treatment of the Lumbo-pelvic-hip Complex. 1999; Elsevier Health Sciences: 24-31.

(1)Lee D. Impaired load transfer through the pelvic girdle: a new model of altered neutral zone function. North American Institute of Orthopedic Manual Therapy. 1999;IV:1-7.

Rogers EL, Granata KP. Disturbed paraspinal reflex following prolonged flexion-relaxation and recovery. (abstract). Spine. 2006;31:839-845.

Vaughn, HT., Nitsch, W., Letters to the editor: on “ilial anterior rotation.” Phy Ther. 2008; 88: 1578 – 1590.
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PELVIC MOVEMENT

Bussey, M, Milosavlejevic, S. & Bell, M. Sex differences in the pattern of innominate motion during passive hip abduction and external rotation. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 514-9. March 2010.
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(2) Congdon, R., Bohannon, R., Tiberio, D. Intrinsic and imposed hamstring length influence posterior pelvic rotation during hip flexion. JOSPT. 2006; 36 (5): 339. (abstract).

Van Wingerden,JP., Vleeming, A., Buyruk,HM., Raissadat, K. “Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint in vivo: verification of muscular contribution to force closure of the pelvis.” Eur Spine J. 2004;13:199-205.

(1) Vaughn HT, Nitsch W. Ilial Anterior Rotation Hypermobility in s Female Collegiate Tennis Player. Physical Therapy. 2008:December:12:1578-1590
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PROSTATE

(1)Antolak SJ, Hough DM, Pawlina W, Spinner RJ. Anatomical basis of chronic pelvic pain syndrome: the ischial spine and pudendal nerve entrapment. www.chronicprostatitis.com/pme.html.

(2) Katz A. The holistic approach to prostate health. Integrative Medicine, 2007 Jul; 6(3)50-5.

(2) Nerves may very well be implicated in the cascade of events which causes chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. A summary of studies from Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Network,

(1) Overgard M, Angelsen A, Lydersen S, Morkved S. Does physiotherapist-guided pelvic floor muscle training reduce urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy? A randomized controlled trial. European Urology. 2008;54(2):438-48. (abstract)

(1)Robert, R., Prat-Pratdal, D., Labat, J., Bensignor, M., et al.”Pudendal Nerve Entrapment.” Surg Radiol Antat. 1998;20:93-98. Available at: http://www.chronicprostatitis.com/pne.html. Accessed February 11, 2003.

(2) Segura JW, Opitz JL, Greene LF. Prostatosis, prostatitis or pelvic floor XXXrolaps mialgia? J Urology, 1979; 122

(2) Wisinski C. Mid-life crisis: one in six men will develop prostate cancer. And incontinence can be a consequence of treatment. Pelvic Dysfunction. 2007;43-45.
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URINARY TRACT

(2) Ansari MS, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Dubey D, Mandani A, Kumar A. Biofeedback therapy and home pelvic floor exercises for lower urinary tract dysfunction after posterior urethral valve ablation. (abstract). J of Urology 2008; 179 (2): 708 – 711.

(1)Minardi D et al. The role of uroflowmetry biofeedback and biofeedback training of the pelvic floor muscles in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections in women with dysfunctional voiding: a randomized controlled prospective study. Urology. 201006;75(6)1299-304.

Raviv G, Shefi S, Nizani D, Achiron A. Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2009;15(2):72-5. (abstract)
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Disorder

INCONTINENCE

(2) Balmforth JR, Mantle J, Bidmead J, Cardozo L. A prospective observational trial of pelvic floor muscle training for female stress urinary incontinence. BJU Int, 2006 Oct; 98(4):811-17 (abstract)

(1) Carneiro EF, Araujo Ndos S, Beuttenmall L, Vieira PC, Cader SA, Rett M, de Oliveira SF, Mouta Oliveira Mdo S, Dantas EH. The anatomical-functional characteristics of the pelvic floor and quality of life of women with stress urinary incontinence subjected to perineal exercises. Actas Urologicas Espanolas. Oct 2010;34(9)788-793. (Entered March 2011)

Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic Floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatment, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Systematic Review.2010.

(2) Fitzgerald MP, Burgio KL, Borello-France DF, Meneffee SA, Schaffer J, Kraus S, Mallett VT, Yan Xu. Pelvic floor strength in women with incontinence as assessed by the brink scale. Phys Ther, 2007 Oct; 87(10):1316-24.
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(1) Fozzatti C, Herrmann V, Palma T, Riccetto CL, Palma PC. Global Postural Re-Education: an alternative approach for stress urinary incontinence? European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. Oct 2010;152(2):218-224. (Entered March 2011)

(2) Hay-Smith EJ, Berghmans LC, Hendricks HJ, deBie RA, vanWaalwijk-vanDoorn ES. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women [review]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (1).CD001407, 2001.

(2) Herbison P, Plevnik S, Mantle J. Weighted vaginal cones for urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev, 2002; (2): CD002114 (abstract)

(2) Himiak, L. Fighting the urge: intervention helps women get a handle on leakage without surgery. ADVANCE for PTs & PTAs. Dec 3, 2007: 26 – 27.

(2) Hung HC, Hsiao SM, Chih SY, Lin HH, Tsauo JY. An alternative intervention for urinary incontinence: Retraining diaphragmatic, deep abdominal and pelvic floor muscle coordinated function. Manual Therapy. 2010;15:273-279. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Ivy CC. Therapy management of urinary incontinence. Phys Ther Forum, 1993 Feb.

(1) Practical aspects of lifestyle modifications and behavioural interventions in the treatment of overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2009;63(8):1177-1191. (Entered January 2011)
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(1) Vitton V, Damon H, Roman S, Mion F. Transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: effects on symptoms and quality of life. International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 2010;25(8):1017-1020. (Entered January 2011)
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POST PARTUM INCONTINENCE

(2) Lemos A, De Souza AI, Ferreira AL, Figueiro JN, Cabral-Filho JE. Do perineal exercises during pregnancy prevent the development of urinanry incontinence? A systematic review. International Journal of Urology. 2008. 15(10): 875-80: abstract. (entered may 2010).

(2) Shelly B. Controlling post partum incontinence. Advance for PTs and PTAs, March 2001

(1)Stuge B, Holm I, Vollestad N. To treat or not to treat postpartum pelvic girdle pain with stabilizing exercises? Man Ther. 2006;11:337-343.
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ORGAN PROLAPSE

(2) Borello-france, D.F., Handa, V.L., Brown, M.B., Goode, P., Kreder, K., Scheufele, L.L., Weber, A.M. Pelvic – floor muscle function in women with pelvic organ XXXrolapsed. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (4): 399 – 407

(1) Hagen S, Stark D, Glazener C, Sinclair L, Ramsay I. A randomized controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training for stages I and II pelvic organ prolapsed. International Urogynecology J and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. 2009;20(1):45-51. (abstract).
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PELVIC PAIN

(1)Antolak SJ, Hough DM, Pawlina W, Spinner RJ. Anatomical basis of chronic pelvic pain syndrome: the ischial spine and pudendal nerve entrapment. www[[http://www.chronicprostatitis.com/pme.html|.chronicprostatitis.com/pme.html]].
Hsu AL et al. Relating Pelvic Pain Location to Surgical Findings of Endometriosis. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011).
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(1)Makous,E. The Right Connection-The answer to persistent back pain may lie in the pelvic floor, not in the spine. Advance. 2001:49-51.

Meyers WC et al. Current Analysis of Women Athletes with Pelvic Pain. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Midttun, A. & Bojsen-Moller, F. the Sacrotuberous Ligament Pain Syndrome. Modern Manual Therapy of The Vertebral Column. 1986:815-818.

(1)O’Sullivan PB, Beales DJ. Diagnosis and classification of pelvic girdle pain disorders—Part 1: A mechanism based approach within a biopsychosocial framework. Manual Ther. 2007;12:86-97.

(1)Stuge B, Holm I, Vollestad N. To treat or not to treat postpartum pelvic girdle pain with stabilizing exercises? Man their. 2006;11:337-343.
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Treatments/Tests

STRENGTHENING PELVIC FLOOR

(2) Balmforth JR, Mantle J, Bidmead J, Cardozo L. A prospective observational trial of pelvic floor muscle training for female stress urinary incontinence. BJU Int, 2006 Oct; 98(4):811-17 (abstract)

(1)Bo K, Braekken IH, Majida M, Engh ME. Constriction of the levator hiatus during instruction of pelvic floor or transverses abdominus contraction: a 4D ultrasound study. International Urogynecology J and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. 2009;20(1):27-32. (abstract).

(2)Carriere B. Strengthening the pelvic floor muscles. Phys Ther Products, Sept 1999.

(1)Carriere, Beate. “Applying Motor Learning Principles to Exercises for the Pelvic Floor.” Advance. Vol. 5:2000.

(2) Castro RA, Arruda RM, Zanetti MR, Santos PD, Sartori MG, Girao MJ. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in the management of stress urinary incontinence. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(4):465-472. (abstract)

(2) Hay-Smith EJ, Berghmans LC, Hendricks HJ, deBie RA, vanWaalwijk-vanDoorn ES. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women [review]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (1).CD001407, 2001.

Hung HC, Hsiao SM, Chih SY, Lin HH, Tsauo JY. Effect of Pelvic-Floor Muscle Strengthening on Bladder Neck Mobility: A Clinical Trial. PT Journal. 2011;91(7):1030. (Entered July 2011)

(3)Morin M, Dumoulin C, Bourbonais D, Gravel D, Lemieux MC. Pelvic floor maximal strength using vaginal digital assessment compared to dynamometric measurements. Neurourol Urodyn, 2004; 23(4):336-41 (abstract)

(2) Morkved, S., Bo, K., Fjortoft, T. Effect of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle training to treat urodynamic stress incontinence. O & G. 2002; 100 (4): 730 – 739.

(1) Nelson P. Pelvic Floor muscle training: tips and techniques for non-specialty physical therapist. IAOM. 2009;66.

Richardson CA and Jull GA. Muscle control-pain control. What exercises would you prescribe? Man Ther. 2000;1:2-10.

Sapsford,RR., Hodges, PW. “Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil.2001;82:1081-1088.

(1)Wallace, K. & Sandalcidi, D. “Pelvic Floor Exrecises For Lumbopelvic Stability: Handout for Patients and Practitioners.” Progressive Therapeutics. 2004.

(1)Whittaker J. Abdominal ultrasound imaging of pelvic floor muscle function in individuals with low back pain. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2004;12:44-49.
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PELVIC TESTS

Cibulka, M., Koldehoff,R. “Clinical Usefulness of a Cluster of Sacroiliac Joint Tests in Patients With and Without Low Back Pain.” JOSPT. Vol. 29(2) 1999: 83-92.

(2) Hungerford, B.A., Gilleard, W., Moran, M., Emmerson, C. Evaluation of the ability of physical therapists to palpate intrapelvic motion with the stork test on the support side. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (7): 879 – 887.

Stuge B, Garrett A, Jenssen HK, Grotle M. The Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire: A Condition-Specific Instrument for Assessing Activity Limitations and Symptoms in People With Pelvic Girdle Pain. PT Journal. 2011;91(7):1096. (Entered July 2011)
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Hip Region

Structure

HIP

1)Aspinall W. Clinical implications of iliopsoas dysfunction. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 1993;1:41-46.

(1)Bolgla LA, Malone TR, Umberger BR, Uhl TL. Hip strength and hip and knee kinematics during stair descent in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J of Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38:12-18.

(3) Brannigan AE, Kerin MJ, McEntee GP. Gilmore’s groin repair in athletes. JOSPT, 2000; 30(6)

(1)Browder DA Cpt., Erhard RE. Decision making for a painful hip: a case requiring referral. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:738-44.

(2) Ferber R, Kendall K. Biomechanical approach to rehabilitation of lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries in runners.

(2) Gurney B, Boissonnault WG, Andrews R. Differential diagnosis of a femoral neck/head stress fracture. JOSPT, 2006; 36(2).

(2) Lavigne M, Parvizii J, Beck M, Siebenrock K, Ganz R, Leunig M. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement. Part I. Techniques of joint-preserving surgery. Clin Orthop. 2004;418:61-66.

(1) Lesher JM, Dreyfuss P, Hager N, et. al. Hip joint pain referral patterns: a descriptive study. Pain Medicine. 2008;9(1):22-25.

(2) Nguyen, A.D., Shultz, S.J. Sex differences in clinical measures of lower extremity alignment. JOSPT. 2007; 37 (7): 389 – 398.

Otoni do Carmo Carvalhais V, Lara de Araujo V, Rezende Souza T, Gomes Pavan Goncalves G, Ocarino JM, Teixeira Fonseca S. Validity and reliability of clinical tests for assessing hip passive stiffness. Manual Therapy. Jun 2011:240-245. (Entered July 2011)

Prather H, Devyani H, Fournie A, Clohisy JC. Early Intra-Articular Hip Disease Presenting With Posterior Pelvic and Groin Pain. PM&R. 2009;1:809-815

Salsich GB, Long-Rossi F. Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics during level walking, stair ascent and descent in individuals with patellafemoral pain compared to pain-free control subjects. (abstract). JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): A16.

(1)Santaguida PL, McGill SM. The psoas major muscle: a three-dimensional geometric study. (abstract). J Biomech. 28;1995:339-345.

(2) Winters MV, Blake CG, Trost JSMarcello-Brinker TB, Lowe L, Garber MB, Wannier RS. Passive vs, active stretching of hip flexor muscles in subjects with limited hip extension: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther, 2004 Sept; 84(9) (abstract)

(1)Zazulak, B., Ponce, P., Straub, S., Medvecky, M., Avedisian, L., Hewett, T. “Gender Comparison of Hip Muscle Activity During Single-Leg Landing.” JOSPT. 2005;35:292-299.
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QUADRATUS LUMBORUM

Phillips S, Mercer S, Bogduk N. Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum. Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 2008;222:151-159. (Entered July 2011)
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HAMSTRING

(2) Behm, DG, Kibele, A. Effects of differing intensities of static stretching on jump performance. Euro J Appl Phys. 2007; 101 (5): 587 – 594.

(2) Boyce D, Brosky JA. Determining the minimal number of cyclic passive stretch repetitions recommended for an acute increase in an indirect measure of hamstring length. Physio Theory & Practice, 2008 Mar-Apr; 24(2) (abstract)

(2)Cibulka MT, Rose SJ, DeLitto A, Sonacore DR. Hamstring muscle strain treated by mobilizing the sacroiliac joint. Phys Ther, 1986 Aug; 66(8)1220-24.

(1) Davis DS, Hagerman-Hose M, Midkiff M, Newsome J, Williamson J. The effectiveness of 3 proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techqniues on the flexibility of the hamstring muscle group.

(3)Decoster LC, Cleland J, Altieri C, Russell P. The effects of hamstring stretching on ROM: a systematic literature review. JOSPT, June 2005; 35(6):377-88.

(3)deWeijer VC, Gorniak GC, Shamus E. The effect of static stretch and warm-up exercise on hamstring length over the course of 24 hours. JOSPT, Dec 2003; 33(12):727-32.

(2) Fasen JM, O’Connor AM, Schwartz SL, et al. A randomized controlled trial of hamstring stretching: comparison of four techniques. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):660-667. (abstract)

(1)Hooper D, DeaconS, Das S, et al. Dynamic soft tissue mobilization increases hamstring flexibilty in healthy male subjects. British Journal Of Sports Medicine. 2005; 35(11)594-598.

Hopper D et al. Dynamic soft tissue mobilization increases hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. Brit J Sports Med. 2005;39:594-98.

(1) Huang SY, Di Santo M, Wadden KP, Cappa DF, Alkanani T, Behm DG. Short-duration massage at the hamstrings muculotendinous junction induces greater range of motion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24(7):1917-1924. (Entered January 2011)

(1) Kuszewski M, Gnat R, Saulicz E. Stability training of the lumbo-pelvo-hip complex influence stiffness of the hamstrings: a preliminary study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(2):260-266. (abstract)

Malliaropoulos N, Papacostas E, Kiritsi O, Papalada A, Gougoulias N, Maffulli N. Posterior thigh muscle injuries in elite track and field athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine. Sep 2010;38(9):1813-9. (Entered July 2011)

Mendiguchia J, Brughelli M. A return-to-sport algorithm for acute hamstring injuries. Physical Therapy in Sport. Feb 2011;12(1):2-14. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Ross MD. Effect of a 15-day pragmatic hamstring stretching program on hamstring flexibility and single hop for distance test performance. Research on Sports Med. 2007;15:271-281.

(1) Rushton A, Spencer S. The effect of soft tissue mobilization techniques on flexibility and passive resistance in the hamstring muscle-tendon unit: A pilot investigation. Manual Therapy. 2011; 16: 161-166. (Entered April 2011)
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(2) Smith M, Fryer G. A comparison of two muscle energy techniques for increasing flexibility of the hamstring muscle group. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008;12(4):312-317. (abstract)

(1)Stephens J, Davidson J, DeRosa J, Kriz M, Saltzman N. Lengthening the hamstring muscles without stretching using “awareness through movement”. Phys Ther. 2006;86:1641-1650.

(1)Turner MD, Jensen RH, Johnson GS. Effects of agonist-contract stretching on hamstring flexibility. Presented at the October 1998 AAOMPT conference in St. Louis, MO.

(2)Verrall GM, Slavotinek JP, Barnes PG, Fon GT, Esterman A. Assessment of physical examination and MRI findings of hamstring injury as predictors for recurrent injury. JOSPT, April 2006; 36(4):215-24.
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Disorder

ACETABULAR LABRAL TEAR

(1) Bjornson J. Case Study: Assessment and conservative management of a patient with a physical therapy diagnosis of left hip acetabular labrum injury, pelvic ring instability, and right ankle instability. Lower Extremity: Healers EDGE IAOM Quarterly Review. 2010. (Entered April 2011)
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Burgess RM, Rushton A, Wright C, Daborn C. The validity and accuracy of clinical diagnostic tests used to detect labral pathology of the hip: A systematic review. Manual Therapy. Aug 2011;16(4):318-326. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Fitzgerald RH (abstracted by Greg Dedrick in IAOM-US Quarterly Review 2004 (2nd Quarter); vol. 46:3-4.). Acetabular labrum tears: diagnoses and treatment. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 1995;311:60-68.

(1)Lewis CL, Sahrmann SA. Acetabular labral tears. Phys Ther. 2006;86:110-120.

(1)Martin R., Enseki, K., Draovitch, P., Trapussano, T.& Philippon, M. “Acetabular Labral Tears of the Hip: Examination and Diagnostic Challenges.” JOSPT. 2006;36:503-515.
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GREATER TROCHANTER PAIN

(1)Brismee JM. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: recent discoveries in recalcitrant lateral hip pain. IAOM. 2009.

(1) Lequesne M, Mathieu P, Vuillemin-Bodaghi V, Bard H, Djian P. Gluteal tendinopathy in refractory greater trochanter pain syndrome: diagnostic value of two clinical tests. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(2):241-246.
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HIP OSTEOARTHRITIS

(1) Cibulka, M., White, D., Woehrle, J. JHarris-Hayes, M. Enseki, K., Fagerson, T., Slover, J. & Godges, J. Hip pain and mobility deficits – Hip Osteoarthritis: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the international classification of functioning, disability and health from the orthopaedic section of the APTA. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009; (39)4 March 2010

(1)Currier L, Froehlich P, Carow S, et al. Development of a Clinical Prediction Rule to Identify Patients with Knee Pain and Clinical Evidence of Knee Osteoarthritis who Demonstrates a Favorable Short-Term Response to Hip Mobilization. Phys Ther. 2007;87(9)1106-1119.

(1) Fernandez L, Storheim K, Nordsletten L, Risberg MA. Development of a Therapeutic exercise program for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. Phys Ther. 2010;90(4):592-601.

(1) French H, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee – A systematic review. Man Ther. 2011; 16: 109-117. (Entered April 2011)
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(1) Grimaldi A, Richardson C, Stanton W, Durbridge G, Donnelly W, Hides J. The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles. Man Ther. 2009;14:605-610.

(1) Grimaldi A, Richardson C, Stanton W, Durbridge G, Donnelly W, Hides J. The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles. Man Ther. 2009;14:611-617.

(2) Hoeksma HL, Dekker J, Ronday HK, Heering A, VanDerLubbe N, Vel C, Breedveld FC, VanDenEnde CH. Comparison of manual therapy and exercise therapy in OA of the hip: a RCT. Arthritis Rheum, 2004 Oct; 51(5):722-9
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(1) Pua YH, Wrigley V, Collins M, Cwan S, Bennell KL. Self-report and physical performance measures of physical function in hip osteoarthritis: relationship to isometric quadriceps torque development. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2009; 61(2):201-8.

(2) Rydevik K, Fernandez L, Nordsletten L, Risberg MA. Functioning and Disability in Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis With Mild to Moderate Pain. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):616-624. (Entered January 2011)
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SNAPPING HIP SYNDROME

(2) Lyu SR, Wu JJ. Snapping syndrome caused by the semitendinosus tendon. A case report. J bone Joint Surg Am. 1989; 71: 303-305. (Entered May 2011)
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Treatments/Tests

HIP STRENGTHENING

(2) Lewis CL, Sahrmann SA, Moran DW. Effect of position and alteration in synergist muscle force contribution on hip forces when performing hip strengthening exercises. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(1):35-42. (abstract)

(1)Wong, C. & Schauer-Alvarez, C. “Effect of Strain Counterstrain on Pain and Strength in Hip Musculature.” J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 2004;12:215-223.
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HIP ARTHROPLASTY

(2) Brander VA, Mullarkey CF, Stulberg SD. Totally Hip: total hip arthroplasty is the most common orthopedic procedure, with strict rehab protocols. Advance for Directors of Rehab, 2001 March.

(1) Cook KM, Heiderscheit BC. Conservative management of a young adult with hip arthrosis. JOSPT. 2009; 39(12): 858-866. (entered April 2010).
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(1) Crow JB, Gelfand B, Su EP. Use of Joint Mobilization in a Patient with Severly Restricted Hip Motion Following Bilateral Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty. Physical Therapy. 2008:December:88:12:1591-1600

(2) Howard PD, Levitsky B. Manual therapy intervention for a patient with a total hip arthroplasty revision. J of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2007;37(12):763-768.
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HIP MOBILIZATION

(1)Currier L, Froehlich P, Carow S, et al. Development of a Clinical Prediction Rule to Identify Patients with Knee Pain and Clinical Evidence of Knee Osteoarthritis who Demonstrates a Favorable Short-Term Response to Hip Mobilization. Phys Ther. 2007;87(9)1106-1119.

(2)Makofsky H. Immediate effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque: a pilot study. J of Manual & Manipulative Ther. 2007;15(2):103-111.

Pait, M., & Watson, T. “A distraction Technique for the Hip Joint.” Articulations OMPT. 2005;11:18.

(2) Yerys S, Makolsky H, Byrd C, Pennachio J, Cinkay J. Effect of mobilization of the anterior hip capsule on gluteus maximus strength. J Man Manip Ther, 2002; 10(4):218-224.
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HIP TESTS

Carvalhais VODC et al. Validity and reliability of clinical tests for assessing hip passive stiffness. Manual Therapy. Jun 2011;16(3):240-245. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Martin, R.L., Sekiya, J.K. The interrater reliability of 4 clinical tests used to assess individuals with musculoskeletal hip pain. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (2): 71 – 76.

(2) Stemmons Mercer V, Gross, M., Sharma, S., Weeks, E. Comparison of gluteus medius muscle EMG activity during forward and lateral step up exercises in older adults. Physical Therapy. 2009; 89(11): 1205-1214.

(1) Yeung TSM, Wessel J, Stratford P, Macdermind J. Reliabiliy, Validity and responsiveness of the lower extremity functional scale for inpatients of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward. JOSPT. 2009. 39(6): 468-476. (entered May 2010).
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Knee Region

Structure

KNEE

(1)Baldwin T, Patla CE. Case report: diaphragm inactivity as a potential source of anterior knee pain. (absract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

(1) Beazell JR, Grindstaff TL, Magrum EM, Wilder R. Treatment of lateral knee pain by addressing tibiofibular hypomobility in a recreational runner. NAJSPT. 2009;4(1):21-28.

(1)Blackburn, TA., jr. et al. “ An Introduction to Plica.” JOSPT. 1982;3:171-177.

(2) Chileboun, G.S., Busic, A.B., Graham, K.K., Stuckey, H.A. Fascicle length change of the human tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis during walking. JOSPT. 2007; 37 (7): 372 – 379.

Chleboun GS, Harrigal ST, Odenthal JZ, Shula-Blanchard LA, Steed JN. Vastus lateralis fascicle length changes during stair ascent and descent. JOSPT. 2008; 38(10): 624-631.

(2)Chappell JD, Limpisvasti O. Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks. Amer J of Sports Med. June 2008; 36(6):1081-1086.

Coppack RJ et al. The Effects of Exercise for the Prevention of Overuse Anterior Knee Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. American Journal of Sports Medicine. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(3) Ding C, Cicutti F, Scott F. Association of prevalent and incident knee cartilage deficits with loss of cartilage: a longitudinal study. JOSPT, 2006 May; 36(5) (abstract)

(2) Dunway D, Steensen R, Wiand W, Dopirak R. The sartorial branch of the saphenous nerve: its anatomy at the joint line of the knee. Arthroscopy, 2005; 21(5) (abstract)

(2)Fink, M., Stoneman, P.D. “Deep Vein Thrombosis in an Athletic Military Cadet.” JOSPT. 2006;36:686-697.

Fritschy D, Fasel J, Imbert JC, Bianchi S, Verdonk R, Joachim C. The Popliteal Cyst. Arthrosc. 2006;14:623-628.

(2) Ford K, Myer G, Toms H, Hewett T. Gender differences in the kinematics of unanticipated cutting in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2005;37(1):124-129. (abstract)

(2)Goldman RB, Lentz TA. The use of eccentric overloading exercise for the treatment of patellar tendonitis in Olympic-style weightlifters: a case report. Orthopedic Practice.2010; 22(2):76-82.

(2) Harris-Hayes M, Sahrmann SA, Norton BJ, Salsich GB. Diagnosis and management of a patient with knee pain using the movement system impairment classification system. JOSPT. 2008;38(4):203-213.

Hebert-Losier K, Schneiders AG, Sullivan J, Newsham-West RJ, Garcia JA, Simoneau GG. Analysis of Knee Flexion Angles During 2 Clinical Versions of the Heel Raise Test to Assess Soleus and Gastrocnemius Function . JOSPT. 2011;41(7):505-513. (Entered July 2011)

Hurley MV, Walsh N, Bhavnani V, Britten N, Stevenson F. Health beliefs before and after participation on an exercised-based rehabilitation programme for chronic knee pain: doing is believing. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11:31.

(2) Kim S, Jeong J, Cheon Y, Ryu S. Technial note: MPP test in the diagnosis of medial patellar plica syndrome. Arthroscopy, 2004; 20(10):1101-03. (abstract)

Kofotolis, N, Vrabas, I., Vamvakoudis, E., Papanikolaou, A., & Mandroukas, K. “Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training induced alterations in muscle fiber type and cross sectional area.” British J of Sports Medicine. 2005;39:158.

(2) Krause DA, Stuart MJ. Snapping popliteus tendon in a 21-year-old female. JOSPT. 2008;38(4);191-195.

(1) Loghmani MT, Warden SJ. Instrument-assisted cross-fiber massage accelerates knee ligament healing. JOSPT. 2009; 39(7): 506-514. (Entered April 2010)

Nyland, J., Lachman, N., Kocabey, Y., Brosky, J., Altun, R., Caborn, D. “Anatomy, Function, and Rehabilitation of the Popliteus Musculotendinous Complex.” JOSPT. 2005;35:165-179.

Ota, S., Ward, S., Chen, Y., Tsai, Y., Powers, C. “Concurrent Criterion-Related Validity of a Clinical Device Used to Assess Lateral Patellar Displacement. JOSPT. 2006;36:645-652.

(2)Patel NM, Bialosky JE. The assessment and inclusion of balance training in the rehabilitation of an elderly man with symptomatic bilateral knee pain. Orthopedic Practice. 2010;22(2):90-97.

(2) Pendergrass TL, Moore JH. Saphenous neuropathy following medial knee trauma. JOSPT, 2004 Jun; 34(6)

(2) Puliti, B. No more knee pain. Advance for PTs and PTAs. Dec 2008: 18.

(2) Sims WF, Jacobson KE. The postmedial corner of the knee: medial sided injury patterns revisited. Am J Sports Med, 2004; 32(2) (abstract)

Stensdotter AK, Hodges PW, Mellor R, Sundelin G, Hager-Ross C. Quadriceps activation in closed chain and in open kinetic chain exercises. (abstract).

(2) Sturgill LP, Snyder-Mackler L, Manal TJ, Axe MJ. Interrater reliability of a clinical scale to assess knee joint effusion. JOSPT. 2009; 39(12): 845-849. (entered April 2010).
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(1) Vaughn DW. Isolated knee pain: a case report highlighting regional interdependence. JOSPT. 2008; 38(10). 616-623.

(2) Ward E, Jacobson J, Fessell D. Sonographic detection of bakers cysts: comparison with MRI. Am J Roentgenology, 2001; 176:373-80 (abstract)

(2) Watson CJ, Propps M, Ratner J, Zeigler DL, Horton P, Smith SS. Reliability and responsiveness of the lower extremity functional scale and the anterior knee pain scale in patients with anterior knee pain. JOSPT. 2005;35(3):136-146.

(2)Zipple JT, Hammer RL, Loubert PV. Treatment of fabella syndrome with manual therpy: a case report. JOSPT, Jan 2003; 33(1):33-38
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ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

(2) Ageberg, E., Roberts, D., Holmstrom, E. et al. Balance in single-limb stance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury: relation to knee laxity, proprioception, muscle strength, and subjective function. (abstract). JOSPT. 2006; 36 (5): 342.

(1) Bedi A et al. Effect of early and delayed mechanical loading on tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. Oct 2010;92(14):2387-401. (Entered July 2011)

(2)Benjaminse A, Gokeler A, Van Der Schans CP. Clinical diagnosis of an ACL rupture: a meta-analysis. JOSPT, May 2006; 36(5):267-86

Bonfim TR, Paccola CA, Barela JA. Proprioceptive and behavior impairments in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. (abstract). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;83:756.

Chmielewski TL. Asymmetrical Lower Extremity Loading After ACL Reconstruction: More Than Meets the Eye. JOSPT. 2011;41(6). (Entered July 2011)

(2)Coccaro J, Wilmarth MA. Use of a accelerated ACL rehabilitation program for patients with ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft: a case report. Ortho Pract, Vol. 18;3:06

Courtney CA, Durr RK, Emerson-Kavchak AJ, Witte EO, Santos MJ. Heightened flexor withdrawal responses following ACL rupture are enhanced by passive tibial translation. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiolog. May 2011;122(5):1005-1010. (Entered July 2011

(1) Deneweth JM, Bey MJ, McLean SG, Lick TR, Kolowich PA, Tashman S. Tibiofemoral Joint Kinematics of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Knee During a Single-legged Hop Landing. American Journal of Sports Medicine. Sep 2010;38(9):1820-8. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Ford K, Meyer G, Toms, H, Hewett T. Gender differences in the kinematics of unanticipated cutting in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exer, 2005; 37(1) (abstract)
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(2)Gerber JP, Marcus RL, Dibble LE, Greis PE, Burks RT, Lastayo PC. Safety, feasibility, and efficacy of negative work exercise via eccentric muscle activity following ACL reconstruction. JOSPT, Jan 2007; 37(1):10-18

(3)Gerber JP, Marcus RL, Dibble LE, Greis PE, LaStayo PC. Early application of negative work via eccentric ergometry following ACL reconstruction: a case report. JOSPT, May 2006; 36(5):298-307.

(2) Houch, J.R., De Have, K.E., Maloney, M. Influence of anticipation on movement patterns in subjects with ACL deficiency classified as noncopers. JOSPT. 2007; 37 (2) 56 – 71.

(2) Hurd, W.J., Axe, M.J., Synder-Mackler, L. Influence of age, gender, and injury mechanism on the development of dynamic knee stability after acute ACL rupture. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (2): 36 – 41.

(2)Kvist J. Tibial translation in exercises used early in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction to achieve weight bearing. Knee, Dec 2006; 13(6): 460-3 (abstract)

(2)Kvist J. Sagittal plane knee motion in the ACL deficient knee during body weight shift exercises on different support surfaces. JOSPT, Dec 2006; 36(12):954-62

(2) Logerstedt, D., Sennett, B.J. Case series utilizing drop-out casting for the treatment of knee joint extension motion loss following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. JOSPT. 2007; 37 (7): 404 – 411.

(1)Myer GD, Paterno MV, Ford KR, Quatman CE, Hewett TE. Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: criteria-based progression through the return-to-sport phase. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006; 36:385-402.

(2) Moksnes H, Snyder-Mackler L, Risberg MA. Individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee classified as noncopers may be candidates for nonsurgical rehabilitation. JOSPT, Oct 2008; 38(10): 586-595.

(1) Nyland J, Fisher B, Brand E, Krupp R, Caborn DN. Osseous deficits after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction: a systematic literature review with suggestions to improve osseous homeostasis. Arhtroscopy. Sept 2010;26(9):1248-1257. (Entered March 2011)

(2)Paris MJ, Wilcox RB, Millett PJ. ACL reconstruction: surgical management and post operative rehabilitation considerations. Ortho Pract, Vol. 17;4:05

(2)Perry MC, Morrissey MC, King JB, Morrissey D, Earnshaw P. Effects of closed vs open kinetic chain knee extensor resistance training on knee laxity and leg function in patients during the 8-14 week post-operative period after ACL reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, Jul 2005; 13(5):357-69 (abstract)

(2) Piva, SR, Childs JD, Klucinec BM, Irragang JJ, Almedia, GJM, Fitzgerald. Patella fracture during rehabilitation after bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 2 case reports. JOSPT. 2009; 39(4): 278-286. (entered April 2010).

(2)Reid A, Birmingham TB, Stratford PW, Alcock GK, Giffin JR. Hop testing provides a reliable and valid outcome measure during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Phys Ther. 87(3): 337-49.

(2)Reiman MP, Rogers ME, Manske RC. Interlimb differences in lower extremity bone mineral density following ACL reconstruction. JOSPT, Nov 2006; 36(11): 837-44.

(2)Risberg MA, Holm I, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L. Neuromuscular training vs. strength training during 1st 6 months after ACL reconstruction: a RCT. Phys Ther, 2007 Jun;87(6)

(1)Roe J., Pinczewski L.A., Russell V.J., Salmon L.J., Kawamata T., Chew M. “A 7-Year Follow-up of Patellar Tendon and Hamstring Tendon Grafts for Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Differences and Similarities.”

(1)Roi, G., Creta, D., Nanni, G., Marcacci, M., Zaffagnini, S., Snyder-Mackler, L. Return to Official Italian First Division Soccer games Within 90 Days After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Case Report. JOSPT. 2005;35:52-66.

(2) Rudroff, T. Functional capacity is enhanced with semitendinosus than patellar tendon ACL repair. JOSPT. 2003; 33 (12): 761 – 762. (abstract).

(2) Salem, G.J., Salinas, R., Harding, F.V. Bilateral kinematic and kinetic analysis of the squat exercise after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. JOSPT. 2003; 33 (12): 757. (abstract).

(2) Sernet N, Helmers J, Kartus C, Ejerhed L, Kartus J. Knee-laxity measurements examined by a left-hand- and a right-hand-dominant physiotherapist, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injuries and healthy controls. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: official Journal of the ESSKA. 2007;15(10):1181-6. (abstract)

(2) Tagesson S, Oberg B, Good L, Kvist J. A comprehensive rehabilitation program with quadriceps strengthening in closed versus open kinetic chain exercise in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a randomized clinical trial evaluating dynamic tibial translation and muscle function. (abstract). Amer J Sports Med. 2008; 36 (2): 298 – 307.
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MENISCUS

(1) Alford, J., Lewis, P., Kang, R., Cole, B. Case Report: Rapid progression of chondral disease in the lateral compartment of the knee following meniscectomy. Arthroscopy. 2005; 21: 1505-1509. (Entered May 2011)

(2) Bedevian, R. Full meniscectomy facilitates cartilage loss. PT products online.com. 2006:10.

(2) Durselen, L., Hebisch, A., Claes, L.E., Bauer, G. Gapping phenomenon of longitudinal meniscal tears. JOSPT. 2003; 33 (12): 757 – 758. (abstract).

(1) Karachalios, T., Hantes, M., Zibis, A.H., Zachos, V., Karantanas, A.H., Malizos, K.N. Diagnostic accuracy of a new clinica test (the Thessaly test) for early detection of meniscal tears. J Bone & Joint Surg. 2005; 87-A (5): 955 – 962.

(1)Moss R Meniscal movement during mobilization. Answered by Robert Moss, 2005 IAOM Quarterly Review.

(1)Vedi V, Williams A, Tennant S. (abstracted by Robert Moss in Vol. 50 2nd Quarter 2005 IAOM-US Quarterly Review). Meniscal Movement: An in-vivo Study using Dynamic MRI. J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 1999;81-B:37-41.
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Q ANGLE

(2) Pantano, K.J., White, S.C., Gilchrist, L.A. et al. Differences in peak knee valgus angles between individuals with high and low q-angles during a single limb squat. (abstract). JOSPT. 2006; 36 (5): 341.

(2) Rauh MJ, Koepsell TD, Rivara FP, Rice SG, Margherita AJ. Quadriceps angle and risk of injury among high school cross-country runners. J of Orthopaedic & Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37(12):725-733.
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Disorders

KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

(1)Currier L, Froehlich P, Carow S, et al. Development of a Clinical Prediction Rule to Identify Patients with Knee Pain and Clinical Evidence of Knee Osteoarthritis who Demonstrates a Favorable Short-Term Response to Hip Mobilization. Phys Ther. 2007;87:1106-1119.

(2) Dixon, J., Howe, T.E. Activation of vastus medialis oblique is not delayed in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee compared to asymptomatic participants during open kinetic chain activities. Man Ther. 2007; 12: 219 – 225.

(1) French H, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee – A systematic review. Man Ther. 2011; 16: 109-117. (Entered April 2011)
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(2) Hinman R, Bennell K, Metcalf B, Crossley K. Delayed onset of quadriceps activity and altered knee joint kinematics during stair stepping in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2002; 83:1080-1086 (abstract)

(2) Jamtvedt, G., Dahm, K.T., Christie, A., Moe, R.H., Haavardsholm, E., Holm, I., Hagen, K.B. Physical therapy interventions for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: an overview of systematic reviews. Phys Ther. 2008; 88 (1): 123 – 136.

(2) Jan M.H., Tang, P.F., Lin, J.J., Tseng, S.C., Lin, Y.F., Lin, D.H. Efficacy of a target – matching foot – stepping exercise on proprioception and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): 19 – 25.

(2) Kitay GS, Koren MJ, Helfet DL, Paradise NM, Makenson JA. Efficacy of combined local mechanical vibrations, continuous passive motion and thermotherapy in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteo Cart. 2009;17(10): 1269-1274.

(2) Lin DH, Lin CH, Lin YF, & Jan MH. Efficacy of 2 non-weight bearing interventions, proprioception training versus strength training, for patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. JOSPT. 2009; 39 (6): 450-457. (entered April 2010).
Pain S et al. Associations between proinflammatory cytokines in the synovial fluid and radiographic grading and pain-related scores in 47 consecutive patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Role of pain catastrophizing during pain processing in a cohort of patients with chronic and severe arthritic knee pain. Pain. Feb 2011;152(2):314-319. (Entered March 2011)

(2) Rudolph, K.S., Schmitt, L.C., Lewek, M.D. Age-related changes in strength joint laxity, and walking patterns: are they related to knee osteoarthritis? Phys Ther. 2007; 87: 1422 – 1425.

Snijders GJ et al. Fatigue in knee and hip osteoarthritis: The role of pain and physical function. Rheumatology. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Squires GN. The short term effects of lumbo-sacral thrust mobilization/manipulation on patients with knee osteoarthritis presenting with lumbo-sacral impairments. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.
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OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS

(3)Davin J, Selfe J. Osteochondritis desicans: a complex case of anterior knee pain. Manual Ther, 2006; 11:157-161

Johnson, Michael. “Physical Therapist Management of an Adult With Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee.” Phyl Ther. 2005;85:665-675.
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PATELLAR CHONDROMALACIA

(2) Bakhtiary AH, Fatemi E. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia. British J of Sports Med. 2008;42(2):99-102.
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PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

(1) Bahr R, Fossan B, Loken S, Engebretsen L. Surgical treatment compared with eccentric training for patellar tendinopathy (jumper’s knee). A randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88(8):1689-1698. (abstract)

(1) Bily W, Trimmel L, Modlin M, Kaider A, Kern H. Training program and additional electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(7):1230-6. (abstract)

(1)Bolgla LA, Malone TR, Umberger BR, Uhl TL. Hip strength and hip and knee kinematics during stair descent in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J of Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38:12-18.

(2) Callaghan, M.J., Selfe, J., McHenry, A., Oldhan, J.A. Effects of patellar taping on knee joint proprioception in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 192 – 199.

(2) Chen, Y, Haas, NM, Powers CM. Comparison of quadriceps muscle volume in females with and without patellafemoral pain. (abstract) JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): A16.

(2) Chang AH, Lin AF, Makhsous M, Koh J, Zhang L-Q. Patellar tracking induced by selective activation of vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. JOSPT. 2003;33(2). (abstract).

Chinkulprasert C, Vachalathiti R, Powers CM. Patellofemoral Joint Forces and Stress During Forward Step-up, Lateral Step-up, and Forward Step-down Exercises.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(4):241-248. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Cibulka MT, Threlkeld-Watkins J. Patellofemoral pain and asymmetrical hip rotation. Phys. Ther. 2005;85(11):1201-1208.

(1)Cibulka MT, Threlkeld-Watkins J. Patellofemoral pain and asymmetrical hip rotation. (abstract). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:431.

(2) Csintalan RP, Schulz MM, Woo J, McMahon PJ, Lee TQ. Gender differences in patellofemoral joint biomechanics. Clin Orthop Rel Res, 2002; 402: 260-269 (abstract)

Connell, A. Concepts for assessment and treatment of anterior knee pain related to altered spinal and pelvic biomechanics: A case report. Manual Therapy. 2008; 13: 560-3. March 2010
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(2)Coquiero KR, Bevilaqua-Grossi D, Berzin F, Soares AB, Candolo C, Montiero-Pedro V. Analysis on the activation of the VMO and VLL muscles during semisquat exercises with and without hip adduction in individuals with patellofemroral pain syndrome. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 2005 Dec; 15(6):596-603 (abstract)

(2) Creighton, D., Krauss, J., Kondratek, M., Huijbregts, P.A., Will, A. Use of anterior tibial translation in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome in older patients: a case series. JMMT. 2007; 15 (4): 216 – 224.

(1) Davis IS, Powers C. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: proximal, distal, and local factors. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(3):1-48.

(1) Duclay J, Martin A, Duclay A, Cometti G, Pousson M. Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39(6):819-827. (abstract)

Epsley S. Medial tibial stress syndrome. PowerPoint document. 2009:1-6.

(2) Ernst GP, Kawaguchi J, Saliba E. Effect of patellar taping on knee kinetics of patients with Patellofemoral pain syndrome. JOSPT. 1999;29:661-667.

(1) Escamilla RF. Patellofemoral joint force and stress between a short-and long-step forward lunge. JOSPT. 2008;38(11):681-690.

(2) Hartigan EH, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L. Time line for noncopers to pass return-to-sports criteria after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(3):141-154.

(1)Herrington L. The difference in a clinical measure of patella lateral position between individuals with patellofemoral pain and matched controls. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 59-62.

(2) Herrington, L., Rivett, N., Munro, S. The relationship between patella position and length of the iliotibial band as assessed using Ober’s test. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 182 – 186.

(2) Holcombe AM. Physical therapy management of patellofemoral pain using a functional mobilization approach: a case report. Unpublished proof. 2001

(2)Hudson Z, Dathuy E. Iliotibial band tightness and patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case-control study. Manual Therapy. 2009;14:147-151.

(2) Is pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome neuropathic? Clinical J of Pain. 2008;2495):384-394.

(2) Iverson CA. Lumbopelvic manipulation for the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: development of a clinical prediction rule. JOSPT. 2008;38(6):297-312.

(2) Iverson CA, Sutlive TG, Crowell MS, Morrell RC, Perkins MW, Garber MB, Moore JH, Wainner RS. Lumbopelvic manipulation for the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: development of a clinical prediction rule. JOSPT, 2008 Jun; 38(6)

(3) Jansa S. Putting the pieces together. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation. 2000; 47-48.

(1) Kendall K, Ferber R, Louro M. Proximal and Distal Clinical Measures Related to Patellofermoral Pain Syndrome in Runners. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta Canada. Abstract and Comments by Radelet M in IAOM-US Quarterly Review Volume 61, 1st Quarter 2008.

(2)Kettunen JA, et. al. Knee arthroscopy and exercise versus exercise only for chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Medicine. 2007;5(38).

(2) Lesher JD, Sutlive TG, Miller GA, Chine NJ, Garber MB, Wainner RS. Development of a clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome who respond to patellar taping. JOSPT. 2006;36(11):854-866.

(2) L’Hermette MF, Tourny-Chollet C, Polle G, Dujardin FH. Articular cartilage, degenerative process, and repair; current progress. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(9):738-744. (abstract)

(2) Li G, Moses JM, Papannagari R, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency alters the in vivo motion of the tibiofemoral cartilage contact points in both the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88(8):1826-1834. (abstract)

(2) Lowry, C.D., Cleland, J.A., Dyke, K. Management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome using a multimodal approach: a case series. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (11): 691 – 700.

(2) Maghalhaes E, Fukuda TY, Sacramento SN, Forgas A, Cohen M, Abdalia RJ. A Comparison of Hip Strength Between Sedentary Females With and Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):641-647. (Entered January 2011)
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(2) Marso JM, Gurske-DePerio J. Effects of medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion and repair on tibiofemoral contact area and peak contact pressure with clinical implications. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(1):124-129. (abstract)

(2) McEwan, I., Herrington, L., Thom, J. The validity of clinical measures of patella position. Man Ther. 2007; 12: 226 – 230.

(2) McKenzie K, Galea V, Wessel J, Pierrynowski M. Lower Extremity Kinematics of Females With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome While Stair Stepping. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):625-632. (Entered January 2011)
Molgaard C et al. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Its Association with Hip, Ankle, and Foot Function in 16- to 18-Year-Old High School Students. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)
Ng EC, Chui MP, Siu AY, Yam VW, Ng GY. Ankle positioning and knee perturbation affect temporal recruitment of the vasti muscles in people with patellofemoral pain. England Department of Rehabilitation Sciences. Mar 2010;97(1):65-70. (Entered July 2011)
(2)Nijs J, van Geel C, Van der Auwera C, Van de Velde B. Diagnostic value of five clinical tests in patellofemoral pain syndrome. Manual Ther. 2006;11:69-77.
(2) Ota, S., Ward, S.R., Chen, Y., Tsai, Y., Powers, C.M. Concurrent criterion – related validity and reliability of a clinical device used to assess lateral patellar displacement. JOSPT. 2006; 36 (9): 645 – 652.

Pattyn E et al. Vastus Medialis Obliquus Atrophy: Does It Exist in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. American Journal of Sports Medicine. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Pedrelli A, Stecco C, Day JA. Treating patellar tendinopathy with Fascial Manipulation. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2009;13:73-80.

(2) Piva SR, Goodnite EA, Childs JD. Strength around the hip and flexibility of soft tissues in individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. JOSPT. 2005;35(11):793-800.

(1) Piva, SR et. al. Associates of physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Feb 2009; 90:285-295. Feb 2010
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(1) Piva, S., Fitzgerald, K, Irrgang, J., Jones, S., Hando, B., Browder, D. & Childs, J. Reliability of measures of impairments associatd with patellofemoral pain syndrome. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Mar 2006; 31; 7. Feb 2010
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Piva, s., Fitzgerald, GK, Wisniewski, S., & Delitto, A. Predictors of pain and function outcome after rehabilitation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Rehabil Med. 2009; 41: 604-612.

(1) Powers CM, Chen YJ, Farrolchi S, Lee TQ. Role of peripatellar retinaculum in transmission of forces within the extensor mechanism. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88(9):2042-2048. (abstract)

Salsich GB, Long-Rossi F. Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics during level walking, stair ascent and descent in individuals with patellafemoral pain compared to pain-free control subjects. (abstract). JOSPT. 2008; 38 (1): A16.

(2) Samukawa M, Yamamoto T, Miyamoto S, Yamaguchi A, Katayose M. Analysis of tibial rotation using magnetic resonance imaging. Man Ther. 2009;14:712-715.

(1) Souza RB, Powers CM. Differences in Hip Kinematics, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Activation Between Subjects With and Without Patellofemoral Pain. JOSPT. Jan 2009; 39(1): 12-19.

(1) Syme G, Rowe P, Martin D, Daly G. Disability in patients with chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial of VMO selective training versus general quadricpes strengthening. Man Ther. 2009; 14: 252-263. (entered april 2010).
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(1)The Relationship of Iliotibial Band Length and Gluteus Medius Strength in Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain and Treatment Implications. Page 1-11.

(2) Tilp M, Steib S, Herzog W. Force-time history effects in voluntary contractions of human tibialis anterior. Eur J Appl Phys. 2009;106(2):159-166. (abstract)

(2) Tyler, TF, Nicholas, SJ, Mullaney, MJ, McHugh, MP. The role of hip muscle function in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. (abstract). Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34: 630 – 636.

(2) Willson JD, Davis IS. Utility of the frontal plane projection angle in females with patellofemoral pain. JOSPT. 2008; 38(10): 606-615.
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QUADRICEPS INHIBITION

(2) Bolgla, L.A., Shaffer, S.W., Malone, T.R. Vastus medialis activation during knee extesion exercises: evidence for exercise prescription. J of Sports Rehab. 2008; 17 (1): 1-10. (abstract).

(2)Knee Function Reduced Following Surgery Due to Decreased Quadriceps Strength. Physical Therapy News. 2006.

(2) Mulder ER, Kuebler WM, Gerrits KH, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Stegeman DF, de Haan A. Knee extensor fatigability after bedrest for 8 weeks with and without countermeasure. Muscle & Nerve. 2007; 36 (6): 798 – 806.

(1)Petterson, S., Snyder-Mackler, L. “The Use of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Improve Activation Deficits in a Patient with Chronic Quadriceps

(2)Spencer JD, Hayes KC, Alexander IJ. Knee joint effusion and quadriceps reflex inhibition in man. Arch Phys Med Rehab, April 1984; 65:171-177
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STRESS FRACTURE

Baitch SP. Breaking point: despite training improvements, scores of athletes still succumb to stress fractures. Advance for Directors in Rehab. 2008.
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POSTEROLATERAL INJURY

(1) Lunden J, Bzdusek P, Monson J, Malcomson K, Laprade R. Current concepts in the recognition and treatment of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. JOSPT. 2010; 40(8): 502-516. (Entered April 2011)
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Treatments/Tests

KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

(3) Denis M, Moffet H, Caron F, Ouellet D, Paquet J, Nolet L. Effectiveness of CPM and conventional PT after TKA: a RCT. Phys Ther, 2006 Feb; 86(3)

(2) Farquhar SJ, Reisman DS, Snyder-Mackler L. Persistance of altered movement patterns during a sit-to-stand task 1 year following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther. 2008;88(5);567-579.

Holm B, Kristensen MT, Benchke J, Husted H, Kehlet H, Bandholm T. Loss of Knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Nov 2010;91(11):1770-6. (Entered July 2011)

(2) Keenedy, D.M., Stratford, P.W., Riddle, D.L., Hanna, S.E., Gollish, J.D. Assessing recovery and establishing prognosis following total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther. 2008; 88 (1): 22 – 32.

(1) Meier, W., Mizner, R., Marcus, R., Dible, L., Peters, C., Lastayo, P.C. Total knee arthroplasty: muscle impairments, functional limitations, and recommended rehabilitation approaches. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (5): 246 – 253.

(2) Mintken, P.E., Carpenter, K.J., Eckhoff, D., Kohrt, W.M., Stevens, J.E. Early neuromuscular electrical stimulation to optimize quadriceps muscle function following total knee arthroplasty: a case report. JOSPT. 2007; 37 (7): 364 – 371.

Mizner, R., Petterson, S., Snyder-Mackler, L. “Quadriceps Strength and the time Course of Functional Recovery After total Knee Arthroplasty.” JOSPT. 200;35:424-436.

(2) Namba, RS, Inacio, M. Early and late manipulation improve flexion after total knee arthroplasty. J of arthroplasty. 2007; 22 (6 suppl 2): 58 – 61.

Parvizi J et al. Secondary Resurfacing of the Patella After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Does the Anterior Knee Pain Resolve. Journal of Arthroplasty. June 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Patterson, S.C., Snyder – Mackler, L. The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve activation deficits in a patient with chronic quadriceps strength impairments following total knee arthroplasty. JOSPT. 2006;36:678-685.

(1) Valtonen, A, Poyhonen, t, Heinonen, A, & Sipila, S. Muscle deficits persist after unilateral knee replacement and have implications for rehablitation. Physical Therapy. Oct 2009; 89 (10): 1072-1079. Feb 2010
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KNEE MANIPULATION

(1)Beazell JR, Grindstaff TL, Magrum EM, Wilder RP. Lateral knee pain treated with proximal tibiofibular joint manipulation: a case report. J of Manual and Manipulative Ther. 2007;15:175-189.

(2) Namba, RS, Inacio, M. Early and late manipulation improve flexion after total knee arthroplasty. J of arthroplasty. 2007; 22 (6 suppl 2): 58 – 61.
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KNEE MOBILIZATION

(1)Creighton D, Krauss J, Pascoe S, Patel H, Pierce J. The effects of tibio-femoral joint traction mobilization on patients with limited passive knee flexion: a case series. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

(1)Moss P, Sluka K, Wright A. The initial effects of knee joint mobilization on osteoarthritic hyperalgesia. Manual Ther. 2007;12:109-118.

(1)Mullin E, Finnegan M, DuVall RE. Closed kinetic chain terminal knee extension mobilization. Articulations. 2008:15.
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TAPING

Cowan, SW., Bennell KL., Hodges PW. “Therapeutic patellar taping changes the timing of vasti muscle activation in people with patellofemoral pain syndrome.” Clinical J of Sports Med. 2002;12:339-347.

(1) Persson UM, Fleming HF, Caulfield. The effects of a vastus lateralis tape on muscle activity during stair climbing. Man Ther. 2009; 14: 330-337. (entered april 2010).

(2) Persson JUM, ACB Hooper, Fleming HE. Repeatability of skin displacement and pressure during inhibitory vastus lateralis muscle taping. Man Ther, 2007; 12:17-21
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HYALURONIC ACID INJECTIONS

(2) Comparison of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and mud-pack therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica. 2010;44(1):42-47. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Karatosun V, Unver B, Gocen Z, Sen A, Gunal I. Intra-articular hyaluranic acid compared with progressive knee exercises in osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized trial with long term follow up. Rheumatol Int, 2006 Feb; 26(4):277-84. (abstract)

(2)Stitik TP, Blacksin MF, Stiskal DM, Kim JH, Foye PM, Schoenherr L, Choi ES, Chen B, Saunders HJ, Nadler SF. Efficacy and safety of hyaluronan treatment in combination therapy with home exercise for knee osteoarthritis pain. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2007 Feb; 88(2):135-41 (abstract)
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Foot and Ankle Region

Structure

FOOT AND ANKLE

(2)Ankle Symposium Supplement Section. Multiple ankle related abstracts. JOSPT, Nov 2006; 36(11).

(1) Barrett A, Caulfield B. Weight-bearing dorsiflexion is associated with sagittal plane kinematics during gait. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):20. (abstract)

(1)Brown LP, Yavorsky P. Locomotor biomechanics and pathomechanics: a review. JOSPT. 1987;9:3-10.

(1) Coughlan G, Caulfield B. The effects of a 4-week ankle training program on ankle joint kinematics. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):13. (abstract)

(1) Fujii M, Suzuki D, Uchiyama E, et al. Does distal tibiofibular joint mobilization decrease limitation of ankle dorsiflexion? Man Ther. 2010;15:117-121.

(2) Gajdosik RL, Vander Linden DW, McNair PJ, et al. Effects of an eight-week stretching program on the passive-elastic properties and function of the calf muscles of older women. Clin Biomech. 2005;20(9):973-983. (abstract)

(2) Gross MT, Yu B, Queen RM. Posterior heel flare and chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome: a case study. Ortho Pract, 2005; 17(4)

(2) Halstead J, Redmond AC. Weight bearing passive dorsiflexion of the hallux in standing is not related to hallux dorsiflexion during walking. JOSPT, 2006 Aug; 36(8)

(1)Harris P. Osteochondral Ankle Injury. IAOM-US Quarterly Review. 2005;50 (2nd Quarter): 10-11.

(3) Howard PD. Differential diagnosis of calf pain and weakness: flexor hallicus longus strain. JOSPT, 2000 Feb; 30(2)

(2)Jarboe NE, Quesada PM. The effects of cycling show stiffness on forefoot pressure. JOSPT. 2004;34(5). (abstract)

(1)Lin C, Gross MT, Weinhold P. Ankle syndesmosis injuries: anatomy, biomechanics, mechanism of injury, and clinical guidelines for diagnoses and intervention. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:372-384.

(2) Liang-Ching T, Bing Y, Mercer VS, Gross MT. Comparisson of different structural foot types for measures of standing postural control. JOSPT, 2006 Dec; 36(12)

(1) Pacey V, Nicholson L, Adams R, Munn J, Munns C. Generalized joint hypermobility does not increase the risk of ankle injury: a systematic review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):17. (abstract)

Peterson, G. & Watson, T. A Distraction Technique for the Tibiotalar Joint. Articulations OMPT. 2005;11:20.

(1) Pettman E. The hip bone is connected to the foot bone…the hip to foot relationship in energy transfer and conservation. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy. 2000;4(2):1-7.

(2) Pierrynowski, M.R., Finstad, E., Kemecsey, M., Simpson, J. Relationship between the subtalar joint inclination angle and the location of lower extremity injuries. (abstract).

(1) Pinto, R.Z.A., Souza, T.R., Trede, R.G., Kirkwood, R.N., Figueiredo, E.M., Fonseca, S.T. Bilateral and unilateral increases in calcaneal eversion affect pelvic alignment in standing position. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 513 – 519.

Pope,R., Herbert,R., Kirwan, J. “Effects of ankle dorsiflexion range and pre-exercise calf muscle stretching on injury risk in Army recruits.” Aust J Physiother. 1998;44:165-172.

(1)Riegger C. Anatomy of the Ankle and Foot. Phys Ther. 1988;68:1800-1872.

Shields, R., Madhavan, S., Cole, K. Sustained Muscle Activity Minimally Influences Dynamic Position Sense of the Ankle. JOSPT. 2005;35:443-450.

(2) Smith-Oricchio K, Harris BA. Interrater reliability of subtalar neutral, calcaneal inversion and eversion. JOSPT, 1990 Jul; 12(1)

(3) Wadsworth DJ, Eadie NT. Conservative management of subtle Lisfranc injury: a case report. JOSPT, 2005 March; 35(3)

(1) Ying-Chih W, Hart DL, Stratford PW, Mioduski JE. Clinical interpretation of computerized adaptive test outcome measures in patients with foot/ankle impairments. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):753-764.

(1) Zammit GV, Menz HB, Munteanu SE. Structural factors associated with hallux limitus/rigidus: a systematic review of case control studies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):733-742.
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ACHILLES

(1) Allison GT, Purdam C. Eccentric loading for Achilles tendinopathy – strengthening or stretching? Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(4):276-279. (abstract)

(2) Azevedo LB, Lambert MI, Vaughan CL, O’Connor CM, Schwellnus MP. Biomechanical variables associated with Achilles tendinopathy in runners. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(4):288-292. (abstract)

(2)Bostick GP, Jomha NM, Suchak AA, Beaupre LA. Factors associated with calf muscle endurance recovery 1 year after Achilles tendon rupture repair. JOSPT. 2010;40(6);345-352.

(1) Divani, K., Chan, O., Padhiar, N., Twycross-Lewis, R., Maffulli, N., Crisp, T.,Morrissey, D. Site of maximum neovascularization correlates with the site of pain in recalcitrant mid-tendon Achilles tendinopathy. Man Ther. 2010;15:463-468.

(2) Emerson C, Morrissey D, Perry M, Jalan R. Ultrasonographically detected changes in Achilles tendons and self reported symptoms in elite gymnasts compared with control – an observational study. Man Ther. 2010;15:37-42.

(1) Gardin A, Movin T, Svensson L, Shalabi A. The long-term clinical and MRI results following eccentric calf muscle training in chronic Achilles teninosis. Skeletal Radiology. 39(5):435-442. (Entered January 2011)
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Goodnight, E. “The Practical Use of Evidence-based Practice in Determining the Best Treatment for a Patient with Recurrent Achilles Tendonitis.” Orthopaedic Practice. 2005;17:12-14.

(1) Grigg NL, Wearing SC, Smeathers JE. Eccentric calf muscle exercise produces a greater acute reduction in Achilles tendon thickness than concentric exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43(4):280-283. (abstract)

(3) Hastings MK, Mueller MJ, Sinacore DR, Salsich GB, Engsberg JR, Johnson JE. Effects of a tendo-achilles lengthening procedure on muscle function and gait characteristics in a patient with diabetes. JOSPT, 2000; 30(2): 85-90

(2) Kawakami Y, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. The relationship between passive ankle plantar flexion joint torque and Gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon stiffness: implications for flexibility. JOSPT. 2008;38(5):269-276.

(1) Lewis T. Fluoroquinolones adversely affect ankle tendons: bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon – a rare case induced by ciprofloxacin. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):18. (abstract)

(1)Rompe JD, Furia J, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading compared with shock wave treatment for chronic insertional achilles tendinopathy, a randomized, controlled trial. J of Bone & Joint Surg. 2008;90:52-61.

Van Sterkenburg MN et al. Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy: why painful? An evidence-based philosophy. Knee Surgery. May 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Voorn R. Case report: can sacroiliac joint dysfunction cause chronic Achilles tendonitis? JOSPT. 1998;27:436-443.

(1) Williams, D.S.B., Zambarding, J.A., Banning, V.A. Transverse-plane mechanics at the knee and tibia in runners with and without a history of Achilles tendonopathy. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (12): 761 – 767.
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ARCH OF THE FOOT

(1) Clinical pearls and perils: the other longitudinal arch of the foot. Ortho Pract. 2008; 20 (2): 91 – 92.

(2) Jung DY, Koh EY, Kwon OY, Yi CH, Oh JS, & Weon JH. Effect of medial arch support on displacement of the myotendinous junction of the gastrocnemius during standing wall stretching. JOSPT, 2009; 39(12): 867-874. (entered April 2010).
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POSTERIOR TIBIALIS

(2) Allen LJ. The functional foot: addressing posterior tibialis tendon dysfunctions and rehabilitation. Advance for Directors in Rehab, June 2007

(2) Geideman WM, Johnson JE. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. JOSPT, 2000; 30(2):68-77

(2) Kulig, K., Reischl, S.F., Pomrantz, A.B., Burnfield, J.M., Mais-Requejo, S., Thordarson, D.B., Smith, R.W. Nonsurgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with orthoses and resistive exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009; 89 (1): 26 – 37.

(1)Tome, J., Nawoczenski, D., Flemister, A., Houck, J. “Comparison of Foot Kinematics Between Subjects with Posterior Tibialis Tendon Dysfunction and Healthy Controls.” JOSPT. 2006;36: 635-644.
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Disorders

ANKLE FRACTURE

(2) Hancock MJ, Herbert RD, Stewart M. Prediction of outcome after ankle fracture. JOSPT, 2005 Dec; 35(12)

Nilsson GM, Jonsson K, Ekdahl CS, Eneroth M. Effects of a training program after surgically treated ankle fracture: a prospective randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2009. 10:118doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-118.
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SHINSPLINTS

(2) DeLacerda FG. The relationship of foot proation, foot position, and electromyography of the anterior tibialis muscle in three subjects with different histories of shinsplints. JOSPT, Fall 1980.
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CHRONIC ANKLE INSTABILITY

(2) Caffrey E, Docherty CL, Schrader J, Klossner J. The ability of 4 single-limb hopping tests to detect functional performance deficits in individuals with functional ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(11):799-806.

(1) Delahunt E, Caulfield B. Changes in lower limb kinematics during jump landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):10. (abstract)

(2) De Noronha, M., Refshauge, K.M., Crosbie, J., Kilbreath, S.L. Relationship between functional ankle instability and postural control. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (12): 782 – 796.

(1)Hubbard, T., Hertel, J., Sherbondy, P. “Fibular Position in Individuals With Self-Reported Chronic Ankle Instability.” JOSPT. Vol. 36(1); 2006: 3-9.

Hertel, J., Braham, R., Hale, S., Olmsted-Kramer L., “Simplifying the Star Excursion Balance Test: Analysis of Subjects With and Without Chronic Ankle Instability.” JOSPT. Vol. 36(3); 2006: 131-137.

(1) McKeon PO, Hertel J, Kerrigan DC, Mullineaux DR. Vector coding detects rehabilitation-specific gait alterations in those with chronic ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):12. (abstract)

(1) Morrison KE, Hudson DJ, Davis IS, et al. Assessment of rearfoot plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure trajectory during a running gait in subjects with chronic ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):12. (abstract)

(2) Webster KA, Gribble PA. Functional rehabuilitation for chronic ankle instability: a systematic review. J Sport Rehab.
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(2) Wikstrom EA, Tillman MD, Chmielewski TL, Cauraugh JH, Naugle KE, Borsa PA. Self-Assesses disability and functional performance in individuals with and without ankle instability: a case control study. JOSPT, 2009: 29(6): 458-467. (entered April 2010).
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ANKLE SPRAINS

(2) American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society. Ankle sprains linked to osteoarthritis. News-Line for PTs and PTAs, April 2005.

(1) Eramus MC. Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review. BMJ. 2010;341. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Han K., Ricard MD, & Fellingham GW. Effects of a 4-week exercise program on balance using elasic tubing as a perturbation force for individuals with a history of ankle sprains. JOSPT, 2009; 39(4): 246-256. (entered April 2010).
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Ismail MM, Ibrahim MM, Youssef EF, Shorbagy KM. Plyometric training versus resistive exercises after acute lateral ankle sprain. Foot and Ankle International. 2010; 31(6):523-530.

(2)van Rijn RM, et. al. Supervised exercises for adults with acute lateral ankle sprain: a randomised controlled trial. British J of General Practice: the J of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 2007;57(543):793-800.

(1)Van Cingel R, Kleinrensink G, Uitterlinden EJ et al. Repeated ankle sprains and delayed neuromuscular response: acceleration time parameters. JOSPT. 2006;36:72-79.

(1)Vicenzino B., Branjerdporn M., Teys P., Jordan K. Initial Changes in Posterior Talar Glide and Dorsiflexion of the Ankle after Mobilization with Movement in Individuals with Recurrent Ankle Sprain. JOSPT. 2006;36:464-470.

(1)Whitman JM, Cleland JA, Bieniek ML et al. Outcomes achieved by patients status post ankle sprain treated with manual physical therapy and exercise interventions: a preliminary report. (abstract). AAOMPT Conference, 2006.

Yeo HK, Wright A. Hypoalgesic effect of a passive accessory mobilisation technique in patients with lateral ankle pain. Manual Therapy. Aug 2011;16(4):373-377. (Entered July 2011)
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PLANTAR HEEL PAIN

(1) Alshami, A.M., Souvlis, T., Coppieters, M.W. A review of plantar heel pain of neural origin: differential diagnosis and management. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 103 – 111.

(2) Cleland JA, Abbott JH, Kidd MO, et al. Manual physical therapy and exercise versus electrophysical agents and exercise in the management of plantar heel pain: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(8):573-585.

DiGiovanni,BF., Nawoczenski,DA., Lintal,ME., Moore,EA., et al. “Tissue-specific plantar fascia-stretching exercise enhances outcomes in patients with chronic heel pain. A prospective, randomized study.” J Bone Joint Surgery Am. 2003;7:1270-1277.

Hossain M et al. Not Plantar Fasciitis: the differential diagnosis and management of heel pain syndrome. Orthopaedics and Trauma. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Mcpoil, T.G., Martin, R.L., Cornwall, M.W., Wukich, D.K., Irrgang, J.J., Dodges, J.J. Heel pain – plantar fasciitis: clinical practice guidelines linked to the international classification of function, disability, and health from the orthopedic section of the American physical therapy association. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (4): A2 – A18.

(2) Meyer J, Kulig K, Landel R. Differential diagnosis and treatment of subcalcaneal heel pain: a case report. JOSPT, 2002 March; 32(3)

(2) Wearing SC, Smeathers JE, Sullivan PM, Yates B, Urry SR, Dubios P. Plantar fasciitis: are pain and fascial thickness associated with arch shape loading? Phys Ther, 2007 Aug; 87(8)

(2)Young, B., Walker, M., Struce, J., Boyles, R. A Combined Treatment approach Emphasizing Impairment-Based Manual Physical Therapy for Plantar Heel pain: A Case Series. JOSPT 2004:34;725-733.
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CUBOID SYNDROME

(1)Jennings, J. & Davies, G. “Treatment of Cuboid Syndrome Secondary to Lateral Ankle Sprains: A Case Series.” JOSPT. Vol. 35(7); July 2005: 409-415.

Landel, Rob. “Treatment of Cuboid Syndrome: Manual Reduction Via Grade 5 Manipulation.” Orthopaedic Practice. Vol. 17(3); 2005:37-38.
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HALLUX VALGUS

Glasoe, W., Nuckley, D., and Ludewig, P. Hallux valgus and the first metatarsal arch segment: A theoretical biomechanical perspective. 2010; 90(1): 110-120.

Schuh R, Hofstaetter SG, Adams SB, Pichler F, Kristen K, Trnka H. Rehabilitation After Halux Valgus Surgery: Importance of Physical Therapy to Restore Weight Bearing of the First Ray During the Stance Phase. Phys Ther. September 2009;89(9):934-946.
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Treatments/Tests

ANKLE MANIPULATION

(2) Alburquerque-Sendin, F., Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Santos-del-Rey, M., & Martin-Vallejo, F.J. Immediate effects of bilateral manipulation of talocrural joints on standing stability in healthy subjects. Man Ther. 2009; 14: 75-80. (Entered April 2010).
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(1) Lavelle JM, McKeigue ME. Musculoskeletal Dysfunction and Drop Foot: Diagnosis and Management Using Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine. JAOA. Dec 2009;109(12):648-650. (Entered March 2011)
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ANKLE TAPING

(1) Franettovich M, Chapman AR, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Augmented low-dye taping alters lower limb muscle activity and motion and foot posture in individuals with and without exercise related leg pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):16. (abstract)

(1) Halim-Kertanegara S, Raymond J, Kilbreath SL, Hiller CE, Refshauge KM. Tape differentially affects functional performance after recurrent ankle sprain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):16. (abstract)

(1) Liu K, Heise GD. The influence of ankle taping on dynamic stability in a group of healthy participants. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(10):16. (abstract)

(1)Moiler, K., Hall, T., Robinson, K. The Role of Fibular Tape in the Prevention of Ankle Injury in Basketball: A Pilot Study. JOSPT. 2006;36:661-668.
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ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

(1) Eils E, Schrater R, Schrater M, Gerss J, Rosenbaum D. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Nov 2010;42(11):2098-2105. (Entered March 2011)
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(2)Jonsson P, Alfredson H, Sunding K, Fahlstrom M, Cook J. New regimen for eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic insertional Achilles tendonopathy: results of a pilot study. British j of Sports Med. 2008 Sept. 42(9):746-9.

(1)Mahieu NN, McNair P, Coots A, D’Haen C, Vandermeulen K, Witvrouw E. Effect of eccentric training on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties. Med &Xscience in Sports & Ex. 2008;40:117-123.

(1) Rees JD, Wolman RL, Wilson A. Eccentric exercises; why do they work, what are the problems and how can we improve them? Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(4):242-246. (abstract)
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FOOTWEAR

(2) Cheung R, Ng G. Influence of different footwear on force of landing during running. Phys Ther. 2008;88(5);620-628
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ORTHOTICS

Cambron JA et al. Shoe Orthotics for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Jun 2011. (Entered July 2011)

Drake M, Bittenbender C, Boyles RE. The short-term effects of treating plantar fasciitis with a temporary custom foot orthosis and stretching. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(4):221-231. (Entered July 2011)

(3) Fishman TD. The right steps: orthoses reduce stresses and strains on foot joints and soft tissues. Advance for Directors in Rehab, August 2000

(2) Kulig, K., Reischl, S.F., Pomrantz, A.B., Burnfield, J.M., Mais-Requejo, S., Thordarson, D.B., Smith, R.W. Nonsurgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with orthoses and resistive exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009; 89 (1): 26 – 37.

Shih YF et al. Application of wedged foot orthosis effectively reduces pain in runners with pronated foot: a randomized clinical study. Clinical Rehabilitation. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)
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Gait

GAIT

(2) Archer, K.R., Castillo, R.C., MacKenzie, E.J., Bosse, M.J. LEAP study group. Gait symmetry and walking speed analysis following lower-extremity trauma. Phys Ther. 2006; 86(12): 1630 – 1640.

Behram, A., Bowden, M., Nair, P. Neuroplasticity After Spinal Cord Injury and Training: An Emerging Paradigm Shift in Rehabilitation and Walking Recovery. Phys Ther. 2006:86;1406-1425.

(1)Brown LP, Yavorsky P. Locomotor biomechanics and pathomechanics: a review. JOSPT. 1987;9:3-10.

(2) Cornwall, M.W. McPoil, T.G., Fishco, W.D., O’Donnell, D., Hunt, L., Lance, C. The influence of first ray mobility on forefoot plantar pressure and hindfoot kinematics during walking. (abstract). Foot Ankle Int. 2006; 27 (7): 539 – 547.

(1)Donatelli R. Abnormal biomechanics of the foot and ankle. JOSPT. 1987;9:11-16.

Dubbeldam R, Buurke JH, Simons C, Groothuis-Oudshoorn CG, Baan H, Nene AV, Hermens HJ. The effects of walking speed on forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle joint motion. Clinical Biomechanics. Oct 2010;25(8):796-801. (Entered July 2011)

Eng, JJ, Tang, PF. Gait training strategies to optimize walking ability in people with stroke: a synthesis of the evidence. (abstract). 2007; 7 (10): 1417 – 1436.

(2)Fotoohabadi MR, Tully EA, Galea MP. Kinematics of rising from a chair: image-based analysis of the sagittal hip spine movement pattern in elderly people who are healthy. Phys Ther. 2010;90(4):561-571.

(1)Greenman, P. E. Clinical Aspects of Sacroiliac Function In Walking. J of Manual Med. 1990;5: 125-130.
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Goryachev Y, Debbi EM, Haim A, Wolf A. The effect of manipulation of the center of pressure of the foot during gait on the activation patterns of the lower limb musculature. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. Apr 2011;21(2):333-339. (Entered July 2011)

Hess, R., Brach, S., Piva, S. VanSwearingen, J. Walking skill can be assessed in older adults: Validity of the Figure of 8 Walk Test. Physical Therapy. Jan 2010; 90(1): 89-99. March 2010
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(2) Holt, K.G., Saltzman, E., Ho, C.L., Ulrich, B.D. Scaling of dynamics in the earliest stages of walking. Phys Ther. 2007; 87 (11): 1458 – 1466.

(1)Inman VT. Human Locomotion. Canad Med Ass J. 1966;94:1047-54.

(2)Kakushima M, Miyamoto K, Shimizu K. The effect of leg length discrepancy on spinal motion during gait: 3 dimensional analysis in healthy volunteers. Spine, Nov 2003; 28(21):2472-6 (abstract)

(3) Kollen, B., Kwakkel, G., Lindeman, E. Time dependency of walking classification in stroke. Phys Ther. 2006; 86 (5): 618 – 625. (abstract).

(1)Lee D. Instability of the sacroiliac joint and the consequences to gait. J Manual & Manip Ther. 1996;4:22-29.

Lee LW, Kerrigan DC, and Della CU. Dynamic implications of hip flexion contractures. Am.J Phys Med.Rehabil. 1997;76:502-8.

(2) Kelly La, Racinais S, Tanner CM, Grantham J, Chalabi H. Augmented Low Dye Taping Changes Muscle Activation Patterns and Plantar Pressure During Treadmill Running. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):648-655. (Entered January 2011)

Kerrigan DC, Lee LW, Collins JJ, Riley PO, and Lipsitz LA. Reduced hip extension during walking: healthy elderly and fallers versus young adults. Arch.Phys Med.Rehabil. 2001;82:26-30.

(2) Marchetti, G.F., Whitney, S.L. Construction and validation of the 4-item dynamic gait index. Phys Ther. 2006; 86 (12): 1651 – 1667.

(2) Milner, CE., Hamill, J., Davis, I. Are knee mechanics during early stance related to tibial stress fracture in runners? JOSPT. 2008; 38 (4): 218 (abstract).

Morris, M. Locomotor Training in People with Parkinson Disease. Phys Ther. 2006:86;1425-1435.

(2) Morris ME, Martin CL, Schenkman ML. Striding out with Parkinson Disease: evidence-based physical therapy for gait disorders. Physical Therapy. 2010; 90(2): 280-288. (entered May 2010).
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Palombaro KM, Hack LM, Mangione KK, Barr AE, Newton RA, Magri F, Speziale T. Gait variability detectd women in early postmenopause with low bone mineral density. Physical Therapy. 2009; 90(12): 1315-1326. Entered May 2010.
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(3) Perry J, Burnfield JM, Thorofare NJ. Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function, Second Edition. JOSPT. 2010;40(10):670. (Entered January 2011)
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(1)Rodacki A., Souza, M., Ugrinowitsch, C., Cristopoloski, F., Fowler, N. Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 167-172. (entered april 2010).
Seay JF et al. Influence of Low Back Pain Status on Pelvis-Trunk Coordination During Walking and Running. Spine. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)
(2) Tate JJ, Milner CE. Real-time kinematic, temporospatial, and kinetic biofeedback during gait retraining in patients: a systematic review. Phys Ther. 2010;90(8):1123-1134.

(1) Vogt L, Pfeifer K, Portscher M, Banzer W. Influences of Nonspecific Low Back Pain on Three-Dimensional Lumbar Spine Kinematics in Locomotion. Spine. 2001;26(17):1910-1919. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Walker, M.L., Austin, A.G., Banke, G.M., Foxx, S.R., Gaetano, L., Gardner, L.A., McElhiney, J., Morris, K., Penn, L. Reference group data for the functional gait assessment. Phys Ther. 2007; 87:1468 – 1477.

(2) Wert DM, Brach J, Perera S, Van Swearingen JM. Gait Biomechanics, Spatial and Temporal Characteristics, and the Energy Cost of Walking in Older Adults With Impaired Mobility. Phys Ther. July 2010;90(7):977-985. (Entered January 2011)
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(2) Wrisley DM, Kumar NA. Functional gait assessment: concurrent, discriminative and predictive validity in community-dwelling older adults. Phys Ther. 2010;90(4):761-773.

(1)Yekutiel M. The role of vertebral movement in gait: implications for manual therapy. J Manual and Manip Ther. 1994;2:22-27.

(2) Yogev-Seligmann, Rotem-Galili, Mirelman A, Dickstein R, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. How does explicit prioritization alter walking during dual task performance? Effects of age and sex on gait speed and variability. Physical Therapy. 2010; 90(2): 177-186. (entered May 2010).

Zorn A. The Swing Walkers of Zambia. Structural Integration. Dec 2007:20-21. (Entered July 2011)
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RUNNING

(1) Boyer KA, Andriacchi TP. Changes in running kinematics and kinetics in response to a rockered shoe intervention. Clinical Biomechanics. 2009;24(10):872. (Entered January 2011)
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(2) Chattong C, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Noffal GJ. Effect of a dynamic loaded warm-up on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24(7):1751-1754. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Ferber R, Kendall K. Biomechanical approach to rehabilitation of lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries in runners.

Morrison KE et al. Plantar Pressure During Running in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability. Foot & Ankle International. Nov 2010;31(11):994-1000. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Sato K, Mokha M. Does Core Strength Training Influence Running Kinetics, Lower-Extremity Stability, and 5000-M Performance in Runners? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Jan 2009;23(1):133-140. (Entered March 2011)

(1) Taipale RS, Mikkola J, Nummela A, Vesterinen V, Capostagno B, Walker S, Gitonga D, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K. Strength training in endurance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2010;31(7):468-476. (Entered January 2011)
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(2) Warburton M. Barefoot running. Sportscience: training and performance. Queensland Australia. 2001 (journal review)
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Back Education Training

POSTURE

(2) Ainscough-Potts, A.M., Morrissey, M.C., Critchley, D. The response of the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles to different postures. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 54 – 60.

(3)Beneck, G., Kulig, K., Landel, R., Powers, C. The relationship Between Lumbar Segmental Motion and Pain Response Produced by a Posterior-to-Anterior Force in Persons with Nonspecific Low Back Pain. JOSPT. 2005;35:200-202.

(1)Bergmark A. Stability of the lumbar spine. A study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. 1989;230:1-54.

Berthonnaud E, Hilmi R, Labelle H, Dimnet J. Spino-pelvic postural changes between the standing and sitting human position: Proposal of a method for it s systematic analysis. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Burnett A, et. al. Lower lumbar spine axial rotation is reduced in end-range sagittal postures when compared to a neutral spine posture. Manual Therapy. 2008;13:300-306.

Candy EA. Effect of a high-density foam seating wedge on back pain intensity when used by 14 to 16-year-old school students: a randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy. June 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Cholewicki, J. Panjabi, M.M., Khachatryan, A. Stabilizing function of trunk flexor-extensor muscles around a neutral spine posture. (abstract). Spine. 1997; 22 (19): 2207 – 2212.

(2) Claus AP, Hides JA, Moseley GL, Hodges PW. Is ‘ideal’ sitting posture real?: Measurement of spinal curves in four sitting postures. Manual Therapy. 2009; 14: 404-408. (Entered April 2010).
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(1) CowanSM, Schache AG, Brukner P, Bennell KL, Hodges PW, Coburn P, Crossley KM. Delayed onset of transverses abdominus in patient with long standing groin pain. Med Sci Sports Ex., 2004; 36(12) (abstract)

(1)Cornwall J, Harris AJ, Mercer SR. The lumbar multifidus muscle and patterns of pain. Manual Ther. 2006;11:40-45.

(1)Dolan KJ, Green A. Lumbar spine reposition sense: the effect of a ‘slouched’ posture. Manual Ther. 2006;11:202-207.

(2) Driessen MT et al. The effectiveness of participatory ergonomics to prevent low-back and neck pain – results of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. Apr 2011:1-11. (Entered July 2011)
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(1) Dunk NM, Kedgley AE, Jenkyn TR, Callaghan JP. Evidence of a pelvis-driven flexion pattern: are the joints of the lower lumbar spine fully flexed in seated postures? Clin Biomech. 2009;24(2):164-168. (abstract)

(2) Hides J, Gilmore C, Stanton W, Bohlscheid E. Multifidus size and symmetry among chronic LBP and healthy asymptomatic subjects. Manual Therapy, 2008; 13:43-49.

Hides J, Hughes B, Stanton W. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of regional abdominal muscle function in elite AFL players with and without low back pain. Manual Therapy. Jun 2011;16(3):279-284. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA. Multifidus muscle recovery is not automatic after resolution of acute, first-episode low back pain. Spine. 1996;21(23):2763-9

Hirata RP et al. Experimental Muscle Pain Challenges the Postural Stability During Quiet Stance and Unexpected Postural Perturbation. The Journal of Pain. June 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Hodges, P. Is there a Role for Transversus Abdominis in Lumbo-Pelvic Stability? Manual Ther. 1999;4:74-86.

(2) Kiesel KB, Uhl TL, Underwoon FB, Rodd DW, Nitz AJ. Measurement of lumbar multifidus muscle contraction with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Manual Ther. 2007;161-166.

MacDonald DA, Moseley GL, Hodges PW. The Lumbar multifidus: Does the evidence support clinical beliefs? Manual Ther. 2006;11:254-263.

(1) Mark PJ, Westgaard RH. Back posture and low back muscle activity in female computer workers: a field study. Clin Biomech. 2009;24(2):169-175. (abstract)

(1)O’Sullivan P, Mitchell T, Bulich P, Waller R, Holte J. The relationship between posture and back muscle endurance in industrial workers with flexion-related low back pain. Man Ther. 2006;11:264-271.

Pilot Office Outfitters: Ergonimic office seating.

(1) Roddey TS, Brizzolara KJ, Cook KF. Side-to-side differences in the transverse abdominus muscle measured by real time ultrasound in persons with and without chronic low back pain. Orthopaedic Practice. 2008; 20 (2): 56-59.

Rasouli O, Arab AM, Amiri M, Jaberzadeh S. Ultrasound measurement of deep abdominal muscle activity in sitting positions with different stability levels in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Manual Therapy. Aug 2011;16(4):388-393. (Entered July 2011)

Ruhe A et al. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Jul 2011. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Tsao H, Hodges PW. Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008;18:559-567. (Entered January 2011)
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(1) Vleeming A, Mooney V, Dorman T, Snijders C, Stoeckart R. Movement, Stability, and Low Back Pain: the Essential Role of the Pelvis. Manual Therapy. 2009;14: 52-60

(1) Wallwork, T., Stanton, W., Freke, M. & Hides, J. The effect of chronic low back pain on size and contraction of the lumbar multifidus muscles. Manual Therapy. (2009). 14: 496-500. March 2010
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(2) Whittaker, J.L. Ultrasound imaging of the lateral abdominal wall muscles in individuals with lumbopelvic pain and signs of concurrent hypocapnia. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 404 – 410.
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MOVEMENT STRATEGIES

(1)Allison GT, Morris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: implications for core stability theories. JOSPT. 2008; 38(5): 228-237.

(1) van Dieen JH, Cholewicki J, Radebold A. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in patients with low back pain enhance the stability of the lumbar spine. Spine. 2003;28(8):834-41.

(1)Etnyre B, Thomas DQ. Event Standardization of Sit-to-Stand Movements. Phys Ther. 2007;87:16511668.

(1) Ghandour, Y. Segmental Lumbar stabilization progression into functional stability. The Ola Grimsby Institute Forum, 2007. (powerpoint presentation)

(1)Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Phys Ther. 1997;77:132-142.

(2) Hodges, P.W., Richardson, C.A. Feedforward contraction of transverses abdominis is not influenced by the direction of arm movement. Exp brain Res. 1997; 114: 362 – 370.

(1) Hodges, P.W. Is there a role for transverse abdominis in lumbo-pelvic stability? Man Ther. 1999; 4 (2): 74 – 86.

(1) Hush JM, Michaleff Z, Maher CG, Refshauge K. Individual, physical and psychological risk factors for neck pain in Australian office workers: a 1-year longitudinal study. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(10):1532-1540. (abstract)

(1)Ito T, Shirado O, Suzuki H, Takahashi M, Kaneda K, Strax TE. Lumbar trunk muscle endurance testing: an inexpensive alternative to a machine for evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:75-79.

(1) Lamoth CJ, Stins JF, Pont M, Kerckhoff F, Beek PJ. Effects of attention on the control of locomotion in individuals with chronic low back pain. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2008;5:13. (abstract)

(1)Lee HWM. Progressive Muscle Synergy and Synchronization in movement patterns: an approach to the treatment of dynamic lumbar instability. J Manual and Manipulative Ther. 1994;2:133-142.

(1) Lopez-Minarro PA, Rodriguez-Garcia PL. Hamstring muscle extensibility influences the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24(4):1013-1018. (Entered January 2011)

(1) Van Nieuwenhuyse A, FatkhutdinovaL, VerbekeG, et al. Risk factors for first-ever low back pain among workers in their first employment. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54(8):513-519. (abstract)

(2) Warren, L.P., Appling, S., Oladehin, A., Griffin, J. Effect of soft lumbar support belt on abdominal oblique muscle activity in nonimpaired adults during squat lifting. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 2001; 31 (6): 316 – 323.
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EXERCISES

(1) Beaudreuli J, Kone H, Lasbleiz S, Vicaut E, Richette P, Cohen-Solai M, Liota F, de Vernejoul MC, Nizard R, Yelnik A, Bardin T, Orcel P. Efficacy of a functional restoration program for chronic low back pain: Prospective 1-year study. Joint, Bone, Spine. Oct 2010;77(5):435-439. (Entered March 2011)

(2) Chance-Larsen K, Littlewood C, Garth A. Prone hip extension with lower abdominal hollowing improves the relative timing of gluteus maximus activation in relation to biceps femoris. Man Ther. 2010;15:61-65.

(1) Choi BK, Verbeek JH, Tam WW, Jiang JY. Exercises for prevention of recurrence of low-back pain. Cochrane Systematic Reviews.2010.

(2) Clark BC, Manini TM, Ploutz-Snyder LL. Derecruitment of the lumbar musculature with fatiguing trunk extension exercise. Spine. 2003;28(3):282-287. (abstract)

(1) Costa LOP, Maher CG, Latimer J, et al. Motor control exercises for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009;89(12):1275-1291.

Critchley DJ, Pierson Z, Battersby G. Effect of pilates mat exercises and conventional exercise programmes on transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis activity: Pilot randomised trial. Manual Therapy. Apr 2011;16(2):183-189. (Entered July 2011)

(2) da Silva RA, Lariviere C, Arsenault AB, Nadeau S, Plamondon A. Pelvic stabilization and semisitting position increase the specificity of back exercises. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(2):435-443. (abstract)

(1)Danneels L, Vanderstraeten D, Cambier E, et al. Effects of three different training modalities on the cross sectional area of the lumbar multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain. Br J Sports Med. Abstracted by John Hoops. 2001;35:186-191

Davidson, KL, Hubley-Kozey CL. Trunk muscle responses to demands of an exercise progression to improve spinal stability. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab. 2005;86:216-223.

(1) Desai I, Marshall PW. Acute effect of labile surfaces during core stability exercises in people with and without low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Dec 2010;20(6):1155-1162. (Entered March 2011)

(1) Filho N.M., Santos S., Roch M.R. Long-term effects of a stabilization exercise therapy for chronic low back pain. Manual Therapy 14(2009) 444-447.

(1)Friberg R, Thurmond S. Facilitation of the lumbar multifidi and erector spinae using prolonged isometric contraction. (Abstract).

(2) Gohner, W., Schlicht, W. Preventing chronic back pain: evaluation of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral training programe for patients with subacute back pain. Patient Educ Couns; 2006; 64 (1-3): 87 – 95. (abstract).

(2)Harringe ML, Nordgren JS, Arvidsson I, Werner S. Low back pain in young female gymnasts and the effect of specific segmental muscle control exercises of the lumbar spine: a prospective controlled intervention study. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: official journal of the ESSKA. 2007;15(10):1264-71. (abstract)

Healey EL, Fowler NE, Burden AM, McEwan IM. Raised Paraspinal Muscle Activity Reduces Rate of Stature Recovery After Loaded Exercise in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:710-715. (Entered July 2011)

(1) Hebert JJ, Koppenhaver SL, Magel JS, Fritz JM. The relationship of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus activation and prognostic factors for clinical success with a stabilization exercise program: a cross-sectional study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(1):78-85. (abstract)

(2) Henchoz Y, de Goumoans P, Norberg M, Paillex R, So AK. Role of physical exercise in low back pain rehabilitation: a randomized contolled trial of a three-month exercise program in patients who have completed multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Spine. May 2010;35(12):1192-1199. (Entered March 2011)

(1)Henry SM, Jones SL, Bunn JY. Specific trunk exercises do not preferentially improve function, pain, or disability in subjects with recurrent, episodic low back pain: a pilot study. (abstract) Combined sections meeting.

(2) Hides, JA, Stanton, WR, McMahon, S, Sims, K, Richardson, CA. Effect of Stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain. JOSPT, 2008; 38 (3):101-108.

(1)Hides, JA, Stokes, MJ, Saide, M., Jull GA, Cooper, DH. Evidence of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Wasting Ipsilateral to Symptoms in Patients with Acute/Subacute Low Back Pain. Spine. 1994;19:165-172.

(1)Howard PD, Hudicka K, Keating C, Neidig N, Stephanie Q. The effect of trunk strengthening on chronic low back pain: a systematic review of literature. Orthopedic Practice. 2010;22(2):19-22.

(2) Hughes M. Outcomes following the use of manual therapy and lumbar stabilization for a patient with LBP: a case report. Orthopedic Practice, 2006; 18(4)

(2) Kavcic N, Grenier S, McGill SM. Determining the stabilizing role of individual torso muscles during rehabilitation exercises. SPINE. 2004, 29 (11):1254-65.

(1) Kay AG. The role of the lumbar multifidus in manual therapy in patients with chronic LBP and lumbar segmental instability: an extensive literature review. A Dissertation submitted to the Ola Girmsby Institute, 2000.

(2) Keller A, Brox JI, Reikeras O. Predictors of change in trunk muscle strength for patients with chronic low back pain randomized to lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises. Pain Med. 2008;9(6):680-687. (abstract)

(1) Kiesel, K.B., Uhl, T., Underwood, F.B., Nitz, A.J. Rehabilitative ultrasound measurement of select trunk muscle activation during induced pain. Man Ther. 2008; 13: 132 – 138.

(1) Kumar S, Sharma VP, Negi MP. Efficacy of dynamic muscular stabilization techniques (DMST) over conventional techniques in rehabilitation of chronic low back pain. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(9):2651-2659. (abstract)

(1)Lee D. An exercise program for stabilization. The Pelvic Girdle. Churchill Livingstone: Edinbrgh, 1999.

(1)McGill SM. Low back exercises: evidence for improving exercise regimens. Phys Ther. 1998;78:754-765.

(1) Macedo, L.G., Maher, C.G., Latimer, J., McAuley, J.H. Motor control exercise for persistent, nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review. Phys Ther. 2009; 89 (1): 9 – 25.

(1) Magnusson ML, Chow DH, Diamandopoulos Z, Pope MH. Motor control learning in chronic low back pain. Spine. 2008;33(16):532-538. (abstract)

(1) Mannion AF, Helbling D, Pulkovski N, Sprott H. Spinal segmental stabilization exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome. European Spine Journal. 2009;18(12):1881-1891. (Entered January 2011)

(2) Moseley, G.L. Joining forces – combining cognition – targeted motor control training with group or individual pain physiology education: a successful treatment for chronic low back pain. JMMT. 2003; 11 (2): 88 – 94.

(2) Nelson BW, O’Reilly E, Miller M. The clinical effects of intensive specific exercise on chronic low back pain: a controlled study of 895 consecutive patients with 1-year follow up. Orthopedics. 1995;18(10).

(1) Nelson-Wong E, Callaghan JP. Changes in muscle activation patterns and subjective low back pain ratings during prolonged standing in response to an exercise intervention. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Dec 2010;20(6):1125-1133. (Entered March 2011)

(1) Oluwaleke S, Cross V, Watt P, Moore A. Experiences of individuals with chronic low back pain during and after their participation in a spinal stabilization exercise programme- a pilot qualitative study. Man Ther. 2010; 15: 179-184.

(1) Oesch P, Kool J, Hagenb KB, Bachmann S. Effectiveness of exercise on work disability in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Rehab Med. 2010;42(3):193-205.

(2) O’Sullivan PB. Lumbar segmental ‘instability’: clinical presentation and specific stabilizing exercise management. (abstract). Man Ther. 2000; 5(1): 2-12.

(1)Panjabi M, Abumi K, Duranceau J, Oxland T. Spinal stability and intersegmental muscle forces: a biomechanical model. Spine. 1989;14:194-200.

(2) Padua R, Bondi R, Ceccarelli E, Alviti F. A randomized study of back school in women with chronic low back pain. Quality of life at three, six, and twelve months follow-up. Spine. 2008;33(15):1617-1621. (abstract)

Perry J, Green A, Singh S, Watson P. A preliminary investigation into the magnitude of effect of lumbar extension exercises and a segmental rotatory manipulation on sympathetic nervous system activity. Manual Therapy. Apr 2011;16(2):190-195. (Entered July 2011)

(1)Porterfield JA. Dynamic stabilization of the trunk. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1985;6:271-276.

Richardson,C., et al. Therapeutic Exercise for Spinal Segmental Stabilization in Low Back Pain, Scientific Basis and Clinical Approach. Churchill Livingstone. 1999.

(1)Romanick, M. Almquist, K. “Comparison of Abdominal Muscle EMG Activity During Exercises Performed On a Swiss Ball and the Pilates Multi-Chair. “Physical Therapy.”

(1) Rouse D. Segmental spinal stabilization. Adapted from Lee D. The Pelvic Girdle. 1999. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh

(1) Sakamoto AC, Teixeira-Salmela LF, de Paula-Goulart FR, de Morais Faria CD, Guimaraes CQ. Muscular activation patterns during active prone hip extension exercises. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the international society of Electrophysiological Kinesology 2009;12: 105-112. (abstract)

(2) Schaafsma F, Schonstein E, Whelan KM, Ulvetsda E, Kenny DT, Verbeek JH. Physical conditioning programs for improving work outcome in workers with back pain. Cochrane Systematic Reviews.2010.

(1) Slade SC, Molloy E, Keating JL. People with non-specific chronic low back pain who have participated in exercise programs have preferences about exercise: a qualitative study. Aust J Physiother. 2009;55(2):115-121. (abstract)

(2) Smith, C.E., Nyland, J., Caudill, P., Brosky, J., Caborn, D.N.M. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (11): 703 – 720.

(1) Sokunbi O, Cross V, Watt P, Moore A. Experiences of individuals with chronic low back pain during and after their participation in a spinal XXXrolapsedXXXons exercise programme – a pilot study. Man Ther. 2010;15:179-184.

(1) Stevens VK, Coorevits PL, Bouche KG, Mahieu NN, Vanderstraeten GG, DAnneels LA. The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises. Man Ther. 2007; 12: 271-279.

(1) Stroyer J, Jensen LD. The Role of Physical Fitness as Risk Indicator of Increased Low Back Pain Intensity Among People Working with Physically and Mentally Disabled Persons: A 30-Month Prospective Study. Abstracted in JOSPT 2008:38:7:441

(1) Tsao H, Druitt TR, Schollum TM, Hodges PW. Motor Training of the Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles Induces Immediate Changes in Motor Coordination in Patients With Recurrent Low Back Pain. The Journal of Pain. 2010:1-9. (Entered January 2011)
The association between isoinertial trunk muscle performance and low back pain in male adolescents. European Spine Journal. Sep 2009. (Entered July 2011)
(2) Wilke H, Wolf S, Claes LE, Arand M, Wiesend A. Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups. SPINE. 20:2, 192-198.

(1) Yildirim Y, Soyunov S. Relationship between learning strategies of patients and proper perception of the home exercise program with non-specific low back pain. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. 2010;23(3):137-142. (Entered March 2011)
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